عنوان مقاله [English]
The dome is a form that has a great impact on the formation of architectural forms and landscapes in Iranian cities. Architects and researchers have always been concerned with the methods of dome construction, recognizing its types, studying the performance of the instrument, drawing methods, and its execution methods. Among the valuable historical context of Kashan, the Grand Mosque is one of the oldest surviving buildings in the heart of the ages, which unfortunately has been abandoned and except for limited studies, it has not been addressed and its registered documents have serious shortcomings and mistakes. In this article, in addition to a general knowledge of the mosque and a summary of its evolution, its dome has been paid special attention. It is one of the few standing buildings after the devastating earthquakes in the region. In the structure of the dome of the mosque, there are initiatives that cause differences with other similar domes and this shows the need to study and document it. Most of the research that has been done about this mosque has been in the field of archeology and about the altars, decorations and pottery kilns (located in the nave) and so far the architectural aspects and construction techniques have not been studied. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to pay attention to the historical background of the mosque and accurate documentation of various elements and decorations used in the dome, the method of construction of each component and structural form of the dome. To achieve this goal, an important part of the research data has been obtained through attending the Kashan Grand Mosque and field survey of the dome, and library and oral resources have been used to control the field findings and know the course of construction and techniques used. Is. The main strategy of this research is descriptive-analytical and interpretive-historical. One of the findings of this article is the accurate identification of the components and how the bricks and poppies are arranged in this dome. The result of the research shows that the form of the dome is in the form of two discrete shells which are made using the technique of whip and chain and moving template, respectively, internal and external dome and the shape of the inner dome arch is hung close to the string curve. Also, the analysis of the decoration of the dome of the house shows that the porch and the altar are decorated with an original and unique example of use and Mogharnas. Due to the artistic skills and decorations of the Timurid era, no complex decorations have been used in this building and most of the surfaces have been decorated in the simplest way, which indicates the haste in the reconstruction and the subsequent decline of the mosque. Comparing the mosque with three domes of the same period and approximately the same area shows that the construction of all four domes has common features and differences that these differences can be seen in the executive details as well as in the decorations.