عنوان مقاله [English]
Hassan Padishah Mosque was constructed in 15th century upon the order of Uzun Hasan, the ruler of Aq Qoyunlu dynasty, in Tabriz, Iran. This building was the central core of an urban complex known as Nasriyya which was located in front of the Sahib Abad garden. Destructive earthquakes of the later periods had severely affected the original composition of this mosque. While current remains assert a Safavid and Qajar interventions which are replaced with the older collapse of Nasriyya complex, architectural discoveries of recent restoration projects besides literary evidence of travelers contemporaneous with Aq Qoyunlu and Safavid dynasty remain the main focus of attention. This paper will be focused on the architectural recreation of Hassan Padishah Mosque in Tabriz through the 15th century. There is no exact evidence as to what exactly the architectural theme of this mosque is. Although studying the architectural remains of this mosque suggests a probable link with other Timurid buildings, especially the Gur-e-Amir in Samarkand, the mausoleum of Khoja Ahmad Yasawi, the Sayid Alauddin and Pahlavan Mahmud in Uzbekistan, the mausoleum of Muhammad al-Buharzi in Bukhara, the mausoleum of Qazi Zade in Samarkand, as well as the Blue Mosque in Tabriz but the lack of suitable comparative data hindered the possibility of pinpointing when, how, in which aspects and in which way this architectural layout transmitted to this mosque. Otherwise, as one vector of architectural acculturation, this coincidence might have a close relationship with architectural developments occurring within the Timurid architecture. Here, the research method is structured to cater two levels. In the first level, it started from much broader aspects of architectural details by putting emphasis on the architectural approach to study the minute characteristics of this monument in detail. The second level of the study is that of typological comparison which basically focused on the taxonomic classification of physical characteristics commonly found in contemporary buildings. In conclusion, it combined these two at the end to make a proposition regarding the architectural layout of Hassan Padishah Mosque in the Nasriyya complex.
The fundamental conclusions about the architectural theme of Hassan Padishah Mosque can be categorized as follow:
1-From structural point of view, this mosque is constructed based on a symmetrical plan in a square enclosure. The main entrance was located on north leading to a domed chamber with a drum. Four lofty minarets on the four corners indicates a Timurid influence like the Gur-e-Amir in Samarkand, and together, they both illustrate similar aspects of a common attitude.
2-What is noteworthy in recognition of Hassan Padishah Mosque is the position of the smaller dome (tomb) in the southern side that attest its Timurid origins in Central Asia.
As discussed earlier, it is possible to conclude that the main idea of Hassan Padishah Mosque was to repeat the form of burial monuments in Transoxiana, Turkestan, Afghanistan, as well as the Blue Mosque of Tabriz. The main structure of Hassan Padshah Mosque is designed based on the architectural complex style of the 9th century AH.