بررسی تاثیر ویژگی‌های کالبدی- محیطی مسکن حمایتی پساسانحه بر زندگی زنان سرپرست خانوار از دیدگاه نظریه ناهماهنگی شناختی، مورد مطالعاتی مجتمع نرگس، پس از زلزله 1382 بم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی، لویزان، تهران

2 گروه سوانح و بازسازی دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی

3 استادیار دانشکده مهندسی معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی

4 گروه بازسازی پس از سانحه، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

رخداد سوانح، بر عملکرد اجتماعی-روانی جوامع تاثیر گذاشته و موجب ناهماهنگی‌های شناختی در ابعاد مختلف می‌شوند. به سبب تاثیر راهبردهای مواجهه با این پیامدها و سنجش عملکرد مسکن حمایتی بر بازتوانی بازماندگان سانحه، پژوهش به بررسی نقش ویژگی‌های کالبدی- محیطی مسکن حمایتی زنان سرپرست خانوار، ارائه شده توسط بنیادی خیریه، در فرایند کاهش ناهماهنگی‌ها و تجارب تروماتیک پس از زلزله 1382 بم، پرداخته است. پژوهش اکتشافی و از رویکردهای پژوهش-روایت و مردم‌نگاری با تکینک‌ مشاهده مشارکتی با 8 خانواده بین سالهای 2016 تا 2018، با هدف بررسی تجارب بی‌خانمانی از زلزله تا اقامت در مجتمع؛ معانی و ادراکات؛ حوادث قابل توجه و رفتار فضایی-مکانی استفاده شد. انتخاب نمونه به صورت داوطلبانه و داده‌ها به روش تحلیل محتوا طبقه‌بندی و سازماندهی شدند. بر اساس یافته‌ها، تجربه مصائب و مشکلات پیش از اسکان در مسکن حمایتی سبب الزام انطباق، دلبستگی مکانی و انگیزه‌های استمرار سکونت شده-اند. ویژگی‌های کالبدی- محیطی پاسخگو و سازگار با انگیزه‌ها، حمایت مالی و معنوی؛ توجه به حریم و قلمرو؛ احیای سبک زندگی در خانواده گسترده؛ همسانی ظاهری(عدالت)؛ اطمینان؛ امنیت؛ نور و منظر مطلوب مسکن؛ تجهیزات و تسهیلات رفاهی؛ بهبود کیفیت زندگی؛ تعامل با محیط سبز؛ آشناییت و انس با عناصر معماری؛ سازگاری بومی و آسایش اقلیمی بوده ‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Impacts of Physical-Environmental Characteristics of Post-disaster Supportive Housing on female-Headed Households Life from the Perspective of Cognitive dissonance Theory, Case Study: Narges Complex, after the 2003 Bam Earthquake

نویسندگان [English]

  • saeedeh asadi 1
  • Zoheir Mottaki 2
  • ali sharghi 3
  • maryam dehghani 4
1 architecture and urban planning, shahid rajaee teacher training university, tehran.
2 Department of Disasters and Reconstruction Shahid Beheshti faculty of Architecture and urban planning
3 Assistant Professor at Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University
4 reconstruction after disaster department, shahid beheshti university
چکیده [English]

Disaster-related stressful life events affect socio-psychological society’s functions and cause cognitive dissonance in different dimensions and life changes. Due to the impact of management and strategies for dealing with these consequences in different dimensions and environments and survivors' lives, the present study investigates the role of physical-environmental characteristics of supportive housing in dissonance reduction and traumatic experiences processes of vulnerable female-Headed Households after the 2003 Bam earthquake and homelessness. Over 15 years after living in the complex, despite the ownership, functional-physical, social, and economic problems, the resident’s tendency to live in this place, satisfaction with the conditions of the complex, and place attachment among families are extremely high. The nature of research is exploratory. Due to the nature of the research, the long time since the earthquake, and the purpose of the study to obtain the long-term effects of the disaster and the settlement type, in the process of research conducting, research-narrative and ethnographic approaches with participatory observation and living with eight families between 2016 and 2016 2018 was used to examine the experiences of homelessness from earthquake to residence in the complex; perceived individual and collective meanings; significant life events and spatial behaviors. The sampling method was purposive and voluntary. To enhancing the confidence, reliability and validity of the research qualitative findings, informal interviews with other residents during walking through the complex, interviews with community-based social workers and women's advocacy organizations were used as a way to enrich the traditional ethnographic method. Data were categorized and organized by content analysis method. Based on the findings, the experience of disasters and pre-settlement problems, necessitates living adaption in the complex, deciding to change attitudes toward life issues, livelihoods, individual and behavioral functions such as social isolation aimed at continuing to live in this complex eventually resulted lifestyle changes. Reasons for the necessity of compliance adaption and early decisions by women to live in supportive housing include lack of housing options, family and children care rationality, inadequate living conditions in emergency and temporary camps, lack of ownership, loss of family head, homelessness, repeated relocation, widespread destruction and disturbance in strength, privacy and security concepts. Changing the mentality of this community from concepts such as relationships and neighborhoods, living environment, mental security, territory and privacy, personal reclusion, psycho-spatial ownership, created the need for a safe and stable shelter to improve one's self-esteem and to respond to built motivations. Responsive and consistent physical-environmental characteristics with the aforementioned motivations, including financial and spiritual support; attention to privacy and territories in spatial layout and housing; revival of extended family life style; external homogeneity of units(justice); reassurrance and Mental security; Optimal lighting and landscaping; Welfare equipment and facilities; quality of life Improvement; Interaction with the green environment; Familiarity with architectural elements; Native compatibility; child-friendly places and climatic comfort. Due to the vital role of post-disaster supportive housing for vulnerable people, paying attention to the impacts and consequences of design and planning principles on lifestyle, user community needs, worldview, culture and custom of the disaster community is necessary.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • supportive housing
  • Physical-Environmental Characteristics
  • cognitive dissonance
  • Female-headed households
  • the 2003 Bam earthquake
  • homelessness