عنوان مقاله [English]
Shabistan is the main space of mosques functions as the praying area, which has four variant types, as has been claimed by this article, namely “Tanabi” (lengthwise space), “SotunDar” (columnar), “Gonbadkhane” (domed), and “Morakab” (combined) which is the result of combination of at least two of those three mentioned types. 952 historical mosques of Iran have been examined in order to reveal in what and in how many types these mosques could be placed: a typological approach by which a more sophisticated context for historical mosques would emerge. As analysis shows, 65% of the examined mosques are single-Shabistan mosques, means they are built with only one Shabistan; 22.2% of them are double-Shabistan; 8% of mosques have three Shabistan, 0.8% of them have four, and 0.5% (8 mosques) have more than four Shabistan. So the aggregation of their quantity equals to 1433; in other words there exist 1433 Shabistan overall: 22% of them are Tanabi, 8% GonbadKhane, 7% Morakab, and 63% of them are sotounDar. Hence, the undeniable importance of sotounDars in historical mosques of Iran can be perceived by this statistics. Furthermore, since 35% of mosques have more than one Shabistan, variable kind of their juxtaposition could result in different “types” of mosques. Regarding this premises, among all 952 cases, 14.15% of them have just one or more Tanabi _called Tanabi type in this article. 2.85% of them have one GonbadKhane, 2.96% are Morakab, 3.06% have Tanabi and GonbadKhane, 6.02% have Tanabi and SotounDar, 1.37% are with Tanabi and Morakab Shabistan, 3.7% have SotounDar and GonbadKhane, 5.7% have SotounDar and Morakab Shabistan, 1.6% have Tanabi and SotounDar and GonbadKhane, finally 59.13% of them have only one or more SotounDar Shabistan. Therefore, with a notable difference in amount, SotounDar is the most popular mosque-type in Iran. As any spatial data and any historical event, historical mosques of Iran can also be analyzed with GIS: Using GIS in historiography is based on this fact that since everything in this world happens in a particular place, and since any place on the earth can be presented on a map, so all happened events and happening things can be analyzed with GIS. In historiography, integration of space and time could have a positive impact on the accuracy of historical narrations: Understanding mosques architecture about their location. Therefore, what we did in this research was integrating typological data of mosques with their geographical data. The Morakab and Gonbadkhane type are mostly located in Esfahan and Yazd provinces, and in less quantity, they are situated in Khorasan. Albeit it would be hard to find these two types of Shabistan in southern, southwestern and southeastern provinces of Iran. On the other hand, Tanabi mosque-type is more apparent in eastern provinces like Sistan and Khorasan; and they are plenteous in Yazd. Moreover, the variation and diversity of types, likewise, is excluded to central provinces like Yazd and Isfahan; in other distinction and provinces, mosque-type-presence is limited to one type or in some cases more than one type but with one dominant type.