عنوان مقاله [English]
Planning for urban density is one of the most important problems facing contemporary urban planning at both national and universal. Urbanized world - that is changing permanently - needs an optimum extent of urban density which can consider both quantitative (efficient use of land and urban infrastructures, reducing energy consumption, etc.) and qualitative requirements (such as providing desirable neighborhood, vitality, mobility, etc.) of urban planning. Re-Defining construction density (F.A.R) in inner city neighborhoods, which are experiencing the renewal process, is in such a way that disregarding the cultural factor is obvious. Elimination of privacy of houses, destruction the functional and altitudinal territories of historical buildings and zones (as the symbols of culture in urban fabric) announce the absence of an efficient model for determining construction density which takes into account cultural factors as it is a basic principal in urban planning.
This paper aims to define a model for determining construction density that emphasizes on cultural factors; and tries to make the pretext of re-presence of culture in inner city neighborhoods, by linking the two concepts of culture and construction density in both practical and theoretical context. Hence, this quantitative research, in a descriptive – analytical method, analyzes the relationship between culture and building density in three dimensions: quantitative aspect of construction density (as the cause of problem), quantitative – qualitative aspect of construction density (for linking the culture and F.A.R in terms of perceived density) and qualitative aspect of construction density (through the indexes which are derived from or related to culture). These analyses are accomplished in two old neighborhoods in Tehran, named Iran and Takhti. The renewal process is completely occurred in Takhti, so that it is a neighborhood with 4 to 5-storey flats frequently; while its original form has been undetached houses in 1 or 2-storey and all of the problems mentioned above are taken place in it clearly. In the other hand, Iran neighborhood is in the middle way of Takhti’s destiny. Its several historical buildings and areas are destroying; the houses type is changing to flats. Because of this, the old citizens are leaving the neighborhood and its and famous community is eliminating. Desirable and suitable F.A.R with respect to cultural factors can prevent arising more problems providing a favorite neighborhood.
Ranking the ability of neighborhoods’ blocks for densification is undertaken via TOPSIS method - that is a technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution – then, by making spatial pyramids for each block and calculating their differences to status quo, suggests a model for determining desired construction density with especial respect to cultural factors, while it has attention to economic aspects. Statistical analysis by Microsoft Excel, spatial analysis of ArcGIS, analytical drawings in SketchUp are used besides applying AHP model for scoring the indexes and Likert Scale for quantification of qualitative measurements. Data collection is done via library data, surveying and questionnaire. At last, the model is stated in a function which is: