واکاوی مؤلفه‌های بازشناخت اصالت در حفاظت میراث فرهنگی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشکده معماری، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران

2 استادیار گروه معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه شیراز

چکیده

اصالت به مثابه انتقال دهنده ارزش‌ها و بُعد معنایی میراث فرهنگی مؤلفه‌ای کلیدی در فرآیند حفاظت به شمار می‌آید، که در اسناد بین‌المللی بر ضرورت توسعه‌ چارچوب مفهومی به منظور تعیین معیارهایی ثابت برای ارزیابی آن تأکید ویژه گردیده است. ماهیت کیفی و چند لایه بودن این مفهوم دستیابی به این چارچوب را با دشواری‌هایی مواجه ساخته است که تأثیر آن را می‌توان در فرآیند بازشناخت و ارزیابی اصالت میراث در بسترهای مختلف مشاهده نمود. از این رو، مقاله حاضر از طریق بازخوانی و واکاوی اسناد و کنوانسیون‌های بین‌المللی از یک سو و دیدگاه‌های صاحب‌نظران از دیگر سو، با بهره‌گیری از روش تحقیق کیفی و راهبرد تحلیل محتوا در پی دست یافتن به سطحی از شناخت و تعیین وجوه و ابعاد اصلی اصالت به عنوان پایه‌ای در راستای توسعه‌ چارچوب مفهومی آن می‌باشد؛ بررسی سیر تحول میراث از مقیاس خرد به کلان، از مفهومی تک بعدی به چند بعدی، از کالبد‌ محور به معنا محور، از ملموس به ناملموس و از ثابت به متغیر، پنج مؤلفه‌ اصلی را برای بازشناخت مفهوم اصالت آشکار می‌سازد که در این مقاله به صورت دو جنبه‌ی "ملموس" و "ناملموس" و سه بُعد "ثبات"، "تداوم" و "تغییر" به عنوان پایه‌های چارچوب مفهومی اصالت معرفی می‌گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of Authenticity Recognition Components in Cultural Heritage Conservation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Somayeh Fadaei Nezhad 1
  • Parastoo Eshrati 2
1 Assistant Professor, School of Architecture, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran
2 Assistant Professor, School of Art and Architecture, Shiraz University
چکیده [English]

Following the development and the qualitative and quantitative changes in communities, that have made substantial changes in historic environments; the authenticity concept has attracted attention in order to strike a balance between conservation and development approaches. The concept of authenticity has a fundamental role in balancing the plans and measures of historic urban heritage revitalization. Thus, the more consistent the new developments are with the concept of authenticity, the more integrated and balanced they will be with conservation. Authenticity possesses abstract origin and roots of the significance and value of the property and is as a transmitter of values and significance of cultural heritage has played the major role in the process of registration, conservation and management of cultural heritage .Authenticity as a multi-layered concept which has the role of transmitting values and significance of cultural heritage has found a special position in the process of recognition and conservation of heritage. As a result, developing a conceptual framework and following that, determining criteria for its evaluation in international documents and theories have been particularly emphasised. Thus, this paper; related to identification of authenticity, recognition components in cultural heritage conservation, poses its main question and works toward its main goal which is to develop a conceptual framework by determining the effective components in authenticity recognition based on analysis of international documents, conventions, and experts’ opinions. In this regard, this paper begins with reading and analysing international documents and conventions and theories related to the concept of authenticity in the field of cultural heritage, and then determines the aspects and dimensions explaining the concept of authenticity. Based on research questions and goals, the qualitative research methodology is chosen and with applying logical reasoning strategy as well as “content analysis” and “logical inference”; Moreover, reading and evidential observation based on books, papers and authentic documents are used as research tools.This paper aims to analyze the content by recognizing and categorizing international documents, conventions and theories. So, by determining the effective components in authenticity concept recognition;  based on the literature review, the context for developing an authenticity conceptual framework in cultural heritage is provided. Based on the conducted analysis, five main components in authenticity, recognition are deduced that can be presented as two Tangible and Intangible aspects, as well as three dimensions of Stability, Continuity and Change. In addition, the evolution of heritage concept, from a solo monument to complexes, urban contexts, and beyond that to Cultural Landscape and Historic Urban Landscape, reveals that the more the scale of the view towards heritage changes from small to large; on one hand the more importance the intangible aspect gains. On the other hand, change and transformation which are inherent in heritage authenticity; beside the continuity of a stable condition, are more paid attention and discussed. Therefore, the current level of understanding of authenticity can be approached to develop a conceptual framework on the condition that the presented dual aspects and triple dimensions are considered in a complementary and consistent relation as an intertwined phenomena.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Authenticity
  • Stability
  • Continuity
  • Change
  • Tangible
  • Intangible
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