بازسازی مجموعه قصرهای حکومتی دارالسلطنه تبریز در دورۀ قاجار با استناد بر مستندات تاریخی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه هنر و معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تبریز

2 کارشناس ارشد معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تبریز

چکیده

تبریز در دوره پادشاهی فتحعلی­شاه، ولیعهدنشین و دومین شهر بزرگ کشور بوده و از نقطه نظر سیاسی، یکی از مراکز اصلی تصمیم­گیری‌ها به شمار می­رفته است. همچنین کاخ­ها و بناهای حکومتی مهمی در این دوره ساخته شدند.قصرهای حکومتی با دارا بودن فضاهایی نظیر دیوانخانه، شمس­العماره، جبه­خانه، توپخانه، حرم­خانه و معلم خانه، به عنوان یکی از فضاهای مهم دارالسلطنه تبریز تا اواخر دورۀ قاجار همچنان به حیات خود ادامه می­دادند لیکن در اوایل دورۀ پهلوی اول، به دلیل ساخت و سازهای جدید به طور کامل تخریب شده و از بین رفت. متأسفانه منابع زیادی که دال بر چگونگی ساخت و سازمان فضایی این مجموعه وجودندارد. بنابراین هدف این مقاله بازسازی مجموعه قصرهای حکومتی دارالسطنه تبریز در دورۀ قاجار با استناد بر مستنداتی از قبیل نقشه­های تاریخی، عکس­های موجود از برخی مراسم اواخر قاجار و در نهایت متون تاریخی می­باشد. جمع­آوری داده­ها به روش توصیفی با رویکرد تاریخی- اسنادی با بهره­گیری از متون و منابع انجام خواهد پذیرفت. همچنین تحلیل داده­ها و یافته­های ناشی از مطالعات به روش تحلیلی- تطبیقی صورت می­پذیرد. نتایج تحقیق حاکی از آن است کهمجموعه قصر حکومتی پس از زلزله سال 1194 ه.ق  پایه­گذاری شده و تا اواخر حکومت قاجار وجود داشته­اند

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Reconstruction of the Qajar Dynasty Tabriz Daralsaltanat Governmental Palaces, According to Historical Documents

نویسندگان [English]

  • Lida Balilan Asl 1
  • Sanaz Khorshidian Ahmar 2
  • Dariush Sattarzadeh 1
  • Maryam Nouri 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Art &Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch
2 MA, Department of Art & Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch
چکیده [English]

The city of Tabriz was one of the most important and historical cities of Iran which had a pre-Islamic background. This city was one of the main center of Azarbayjan in the most historical era and it had been capital in some era like Ilkhanian, Gharaghoyonlu, Agh ghoyonlu and even early of Safavi era. Historical background and continuous efforts residents of Tabriz cause to infrastructure some sort of urban and architecture spaces, unfortunately few relic of them has remained. During the reign of Fath-Ali Shah, Tabriz had been the city of crown princes and the second big city in the country, more over It had been being one of the main political centers also Significant governmental building and palaces were built in this era. Architecture and urban spaces was destructed by lots of natural and artificial factors. Based on research of Yahya Zaka, the earthquakes on 1708 was severe that had not left even an inch of wall’s height. This happening caused to lose the old spatial organization and structure of city in Safavi era, after that new structure in Qajar era had been established by Najaf Gholi Khan Biglar Beigi’ s construction. Reconstruction of the city was built by the people again after the last destruction and damaging.After the last ruined, the renewed structure of the city begin by the people. So with this formation new battlement or the last one begin to construct and it finished on 1809. According to extant illustrated documents, the complex of governmental palaces of Tabriz Daralsaltanat was one of the most worth and unique construction which had been built in Qajar era. It had been located in the center of the city and east side of Tabriz Bazar with area of nearly 7.5 hectare. Governmental palaces containing of spaces like Divankhaneh, Shamsolemareh, Jobbe khaneh, Toop khaneh, Haram khaneh, Moallem khaneh was existing as one of the main spaces of Tabriz Darolsaltanat until late Qajar era, however, it was ruined and disappeared by new construction in the early first Pahlavi era. The building of governmental palaces, Melli Bank and organization of Economic Affairs and finance were located instead of the exquisite collection. Whereas, there isn’t any research about how had been the spatial structure and architecture of governmental palaces in Qajar era, this article is the first proceeding to recognize and study the architectural trait of this place. The main question is when the governmental palaces of Tabriz Daralsaltanat was built, what changes it had been had and what spaces it had been included? Therefore, the purpose of this article is Reconstruction of the Qajar dynasty Tabriz Daralsaltanat governmental palaces, according to documents such as historical maps, some existent photos of late Qajar ceremony and finally historical manuscripts. The results indicate that the complex of governmental palaces built after the earthquakes on 1679 happened and it had been being existed until late Qajar. Hence, the governmental spatial structure will be going to exposure after reconstruction of the complex over a period of 150 years.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Reconstruction
  • Governmental Palaces
  • Tabriz Daralsaltanat
  • Qajar
  • historical documents