فرایند ایمن سازی لرزه‌ای بافت‌های تاریخی* مطالعه موردی: روستای نایبند

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد بازسازی پس از سانحه، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 استاد دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

چکیده
در کشور ما علی رغم وجود تعداد زیاد بافت­های تاریخی در معرض زلزله، تحقیق جامع و روشمندی در زمینه کاهش آسیب­پذیری آنها صورت نگرفته و اسناد موجود عمدتاً به توصیف تجربه‌های پراکنده مقاوم سازی در مقیاس تک بناها اکتفا کرده­اند. نایبند  در 200 کیلومتری طبس، روستایی با ارزش‌های تاریخی است که در مجاورت گسل بزرگ نایبند قرار دارد. به دلیل وجود بافت منحصر‌به‌فرد کالبدی و شکل­گیری روابط اجتماعی، فرهنگی و اقتصادی و پیروی از الگوهای بومی ساخت و ساز در تعامل با آن و همچنین اجرای طرح جابه‌جایی ساکنین و تخلیه بافت، این روستا گزینه خوبی جهت انجام مطالعات ایمن­سازی لرزه­ای است تا بتوان از فرایند تعریف شده برای آن به عنوان الگویی برای دیگر بافت‌های تاریخی استفاده کرد. فرایند معرفی شده در این مقاله دارای دو بخش اصلی می‌باشد. بخش اول به شناخت آسیب­پذیری­های کالبدی روستا در برابر زلزله اختصاص دارد که طی آن با مطالعه تطبیقی 19 روش تحلیل آسیب پذیری، در نهایت روش FAMIVE که در سطح جهانی از اعتبار بالایی برخوردار است، انتخاب و انواع آسیب­پذیری­ها از طریق آن استخراج گردید. در بخش دوم، نظر به تنوع خصوصیات بناهای تاریخی و لزوم بهینه بودن سطح مداخله در آنها، سطوح هدف عملکردی به صورت روش­مند پیشنهاد گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Seisemic safety process of historical contexts*

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Mahdi Hadian 1
  • Mohsen Sartipipur 2
1 Professor, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Studies, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Studies, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Iran has many historic cities and villages with economic, historic and cultural values facing with many seismic faults. There have been no comprehensive studies about reducing the vulnerability of the historic villages, and the available documents describe the retrofitting experiments only about the single buildings.  Lack of a comprehensive look at the subject leads to the loss of the resources and carries out parallel and sometimes conflicting actions. Nayband, in the center of Iran, is a historic village near Nayband fault. Because of unique physical context, performing social, cultural and economic relations, follow up vernacular construction patterns and past earthquake evidences, this village is a proper case for conducting a seismic safety study to make use of defined process as a pattern to other historical contexts and villages that are exposed to earthquake. The first step in the seismic safety process is the identification of context structural vulnerabilities. seismic vulnerabilities can be achieved by different methods. Some of these methods have abilities such as large-scale covering  and little time data processing. The appropriate method must be selected in according to evaluation objectives. In this research, a comparative study conducted for 19 vulnerability analysis methods, and finally based on data availability, large scale covering, low entry and data processing time and high reliability, FAMIVE method was chosen. This method which has high validity in the world can determine buildings vulnerabilities levels and major structural failure mechanisms in order to set them up later for retrofitting operations. Afterwards, based on factors include historical and artistic value of the building, usability of habitation after disaster, building type and structural evidence of past earthquakes, 39 facades belongs to 21 buildings were selected and their data were recorded to Excel forms. After processing forms using FAMIVE method, the following results were obtained: The anticipated failure mechanisms, The seismic vulnerability level of buildings and The Building resiliency in the face of different earthquakes. According to the results of the vulnerability analysis and a high level of risk faced by the village, the need for physical intervention and housing retrofit operation to protect the lives of residents and cultural heritage of the village was confirmed. Historical buildings  in terms of structural systems, artistic value of its assets, and usability after disaster are differ. Also, newly constructed buildings or public buildings exist due to the presence of humans in them or having the potential to be service provider of post disaster, planners must consider them. By studying international experience and review their criteria, indicators recognized and given weight to identify priorities for retrofitting in this area  were: kind of ownership, potential use after disaster, historical and artistic values, number of occupants, hours of occupancy, kind of building use and number of stories. Finally priorities identified through the GIS analysis in terms of four distinct building groups. Finally, considering the need to optimize the physical intervention level and output of previous steps, the anticipated seismic performance levels of buildings against earthquakes recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Vulnerability Assessment
  • Cultural heritage
  • FAMIVE
  • Seismic Performance Levels
  • Historic Context
  • consolidation