اندازه گیری و بررسی شرایط نور روز در خانه های قدیمی کرمان*

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکز، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

چکیده
نور طبیعی تاثیر بسزایی روی سلامت انسان­ها دارد. براساس پژوهش­های صورت گرفته در مورد خانه­های قدیمی ایران، مشخص گردید که در ایران نورگیرهای متنوعی برای تامین روشنایی طبیعی در داخل ساختمان­ها وجود دارد و این سوال را مطرح می کند که آیا تنوع موجود در نوع نورگیرهای فضاهای داخلی خانه­های سنتی موجب استفاده بهتر از شرایط روشنایی و گرمایی در داخل این فضاها شده است؟ به منظور یافتن پاسخ این سئوال، شرایط نورپردازی و شرایط گرمایی فضاهای اصلی زندگی در یکی از خانه­های سنتی شهر کرمان، شامل اتاقی با نورگیر سقفی و اتاق­هایی دارای در-پنجره (دو دری و پنج دری) مورد بررسی قرار می­گیرد. در این بررسی، اندازه­گیری های میدانی و شبیه­سازی شده تحت شرایط آسمانی صاف و آفتابی است و میزان روشنایی اتاق­ها توسط دستگاه نورسنج و شبیه­سازی­ها به کمک نرم­افزار ­اکوتکت (با پشتیبانی محاسباتی ریدینس) انجام شده است و در نهایت نحوه توزیع و میزان روشنایی و حرارت فضاهای فوق با هم مقایسه و تحلیل گردید. نتایج نشان­دهنده تاثیر تنوع نورگیری فضا بر میزان گرما و روشنایی آن می­­باشد که تحت تاثیر موقعیت محل، چگونگی ارتباط با فضای پیرامون و نوع عملکرد آن قرار می­گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Measurement and analyzing daylight condition in traditional Kerman houses(Aminian house)*

نویسندگان [English]

  • Marzieh Kazemzadeh 1
  • Mansoureh Tahbaz 2
1 Ph.D. Candidate in Architecture , Faculty of Art and Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Natural light has a great effect on the health of human beings. Studies on Iranian old houses show that various apertures were used to provide natural light in the interior spaces of   the buildings. In the present research attempt has been made to measure the extent to which some of the lightening methods of Iranian traditional architecture have been successful in the provision of interior lightening with respect to the various experiences of Iranian architecture on the provision of interior lightening. Therefore the following research question is formulated: Does the variety of apertures in traditional houses lead to better use of lighting and heating sources in the interior spaces?To answer the question in this article a sample of such houses in Kerman has been chosen, simulated and the amounts of daylight level measurements of selected rooms has been studied. The house has several rooms, one of them with skylight roof (kolah farangy) and the others with door-windows into the yard (seh dari and panj dari). Monitoring has been under the clear sky. The value of the illuminance of the rooms has been measured by photometer and simulators with the aid of Ecotect software (by radiance calculation support).  Finally light distribution method, the value of illuminance and heat of the said spaces have been compared and the results were analyzed. The results have shown that the average and the least illuminance values of the room to the west are 154.92 lux and 75.7 lux , the room facing south 4.3 k lux and 157 lux and the   room with skylight 266.92 lux and 200 lux respectively. The results from simulators also indicate that 76 % of the area of the rooms facing south needs ancillary light during a year. Only 26 % of the area of the room has appropriate light. It is mainly around midday. Therefore it is suitable for resting and general affairs. 48 % of the area of the room facing west has appropriate light all over a year. 45 % of the area of the room at some hours particularly in the morning and sometimes at noon needs ancillary light during a year.  Glare happens at 7 % of the area of the room beside window particularly in the afternoon. There is little even lightening in this room. It is suitable to do general and visual activities only for a short time. 83% of the   room with skylight has appropriate light all over a year. Only 7% of the   room needs ancillary light during a year. Glare is likely to happen for nearly 1 % in this room. The amount of the light evenness is very high. It is completely suitable to do general and visual activities in it. Generally speaking the study of an Iranian traditional house has shown that the variety of apertures in traditional houses has positive effects on the amount of cooling and lighting. It has also been affected by the site location, the building relationship with outer space and its performance

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keyword: Kolahfarangi
  • Traditional architecture
  • Daylight
  • Skylight
  • Door-Window
  • Energy Efficiency