عنوان مقاله [English]
ocated in Kalate Naderi, in northeast side of Khorasan province, Qasre khorshid (Palace of The Sun) is one of few buildings remained from Afsharid dynasty. In this article, after introducing the building, we try to identify geometrical principles which form the building. Considering the prominence of geometry in art and architecture of Iran (and generally throughout the whole ancient world), studying such geometrical principles are of special value. There have been similar studies for instance works of Hardey on the building of Neysar, and works of Pope on tomb of Amir Esmaeil Samani. Such these studies are still not done comprehensively on instances of Islamic Iranian architecture. This on the one hand makes these principles undetected and mysterious, and on the other hand attenuates genuine identity in contemporary architecture. Geometrical drawings and proportions has been utilized in Persian architecture for a long time. Geometrical layouts have been used specially in Islamic age to determine the dimensions and proportions of buildings. This article is an effort to recognize basic geometrical principles in Qasre khorshid, Kalate Naderi, Khorasan, Iran. This building was constructed by Nader Shah’s order in eighteenth century. The question is if this architectural heritage is based on special geometric forms? In order to answer the question theoretical bases of application of geometry in architecture are considered first. Theories of Muslim scientists and philosophers are reviewed in that section and static geometrical principles are mentioned also. Then the building is introduced through a special method which consists of brief information about history of Qasre Khorshid and its geographical context, introducing the building itself and its components, recognizing its architectural style, and a study on similar cases. Then the geometric pattern which forms the building is concluded according to the two previous discussions. It is found that this geometric pattern is based on hexagons. The pattern can be traced on elevations and sections of the building simultaneously and it can also be traced on its plan too. The pattern is drawn progressively and each of its phases determines some of the building’s important locations or dimensions. These phases identify the building from basic total forms to some minute details. Conclusions of this article, along with other similar studies, can be used in recognition of architectural heritage in Iran and to reproduce its genuine Islamic-Iranian identity. At the first glance Qasre Khorshid seems extremely influenced by Indian architecture. Finishing materials and its carvings give the building an Indian look. But, as mentioned in the article, the building has features of Isfahani order in its inner levels and is totally an Iranian work of art from inside. One of the hidden features of the building, which has been discussed comprehensively in the article, is its geometry. This feature, along with other features of the building makes it a valuable sample of Persian architecture. Recognizing such geometrical features as well as other concepts and characteristics can help reviving genuine identity of Iranian architecture.