معماری امروز و ابهامی در باب ثابت و متغیر

نویسنده

استادیار دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

در معماری امروز ما، هم در عرصه نظر معیارهای چندان ثابت و روشنی در دست نیست و هم در عرصه عمل، عواملی چون تکرار محض صورت های معماری گذشته، اصالت تمایز، شگفتی آفرینی و ابراز خودخواهانه خویش و پذیرش کثرت و تغییر محض یا ایجاد وحدت از طریق یکسان و همانند سازی و اهمیت یافتن صِرف صورت معماری بدون اعتنا به معنای آن، به این بی معیاری و نابسامانی دامان زده است. چنین است که می توان یکی از علل آشفتگی کنونی معماری را، ابهامی عمیق در چیستی امر ثابت و امر متغیر دانست. با تکیه بر جهان بینی حکمی، روشن ساختن ابهام در باب ثبات و تغییر نه از اندیشه صرف در چگونگی صورت معماری، بلکه از بازاندیشی در چیستی امر ثابت و متغیر در زندگی انسان که معماری ظرف آن است آغاز می شود تا راه را برای شناخت ثابت و متغیر در معماریِ دربرگیرنده این زندگی بگشاید. انسان ها دارای مرتبه‌ای ثابت‌اند که در پاسخ به فطرت و براساس سنت بی تغییر الهی، بی زمان و مکان است. بدین ترتیب می توان مرتبه ای برای معماری تعریف کرد که ثابت است و تحت دامنه-ای خاص می تواند در مرتبه صورت ها، متغیر و ثابت‌مدار باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Today’s architecture and ambiguity about the “constant and variable”

نویسنده [English]

  • Atefeh karbasi
چکیده [English]

The present paper first with a look to the today's architecture demonstrate that on one hand in the field of opinion in education and architecture view, there is no constant and clear standard and on the other hand what exists in the field of action, increase this disturbance and disorder. Among the solution adopted in the field of action are: imitation and repetition of traditional (past) architecture, past escaping, distinction originality, creating wonder, and expressing your own selfish in the architecture. The results of these solutions are: acceptance of change, multiplicity, and plurality or in the opposite side creating unity through integrating (fixing) the shape of architecture and importance of this aspect without paying attention to its meanings. Thus, these solutions are not only efficient in organizing the architecture but also had irreversible damages to it. This is so that we can consider the existence of deep ambiguity in the nature of «constant and variable matters» as one of the causes of nowadays disorder in architecture in our country. Awareness of this issue makes the thinking about nature and the fact of «constant and variable matters», being an essential issue. This paper seeks to demonstrate the necessity and importance of accuracy in both constant and variable matters as two main concepts in architecture; and its methods are by observing the current situation of architecture, reflecting expert’s opinions, deduction, and argument. This article first tries to show that this accuracy has been very important in both fields, and demonstrates that its absence has created lots of problems; by considering and describing current situation of architecture. On the one hand, there is no constant, same, and clear criterion in architecture view in the field of education, and in architecture criticism or competitions. In addition, most often people act as their arbitrary and their wants. On the other hand, what exists in the practical applicable architecture is a source and reason of confusion and disorder, which results in no criterion or standard. On the other hand with the aid of paper's worldview which is ruling worldview, we understand that the way of clarifying the ambiguity in the field of constant and variable is not the thought of manner of traditional architecture. Also immediacy addressing of modern, same, or different forms of architecture doesn't work. The solution to the problem begins with thinking about the nature of constant and variable matters in the human life and since the architecture is the body of life, the importance, and the relevance to human life is important to help understanding the constant and variable matters in this life architecture. Thinking about the nature of life with the view of ruling worldview shows that all humans have constant order that in reliance to «temperament» and based on God's unchanging «tradition», is without time and space. So we can define an order for the architecture in response to humans «temperament» and based on the real meanings of objects in the universe is constant. This architecture can be variable and constant under a certain domain in the order of forms.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Constant
  • God's Tradition
  • temperament
  • Today’s Architecture
  • Variable