عنوان مقاله [English]
A survey on spatial integration and its evolutionary progress in Iranian ancient mosques
Saeid Golestani*, Isa Hojat **, Mehdi Saedvandi***
* **PH.D Candidate of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
** Professor, Faculty of Architecture, University College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran,Tehran, Iran
***Assistant Professor, Faculty of Architecture, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
The genesis and development of Iranian Mosques during the history, is an ideal context to study the process of spatial changes in Iranian architecture. The turning point of the Iranian mosque progress is the transforming of simple Arabic Mosques to four-Iwan mosque in the Seljuk dynasty era at the first of the 11th century. After the time, Iranian architecture, focused on refinement and development the Iranian mosque type. Through their innovation, they succeeded to achieve a diverse and integrated spatial system. We frequently face some special terms such as transparency, expansion, fluidity, continuity and legerity, while reviewing some studies on spatial features of Iranian traditional architecture. These terms seem to be mostly overlapped in concept, which itself cause to misunderstand the differences. In the article after reviewing existing theories about spatial features of Iranian traditional architecture, through application of logical reasoning strategy, we concluded that all the terms can be organized under a pervasive concept which called as “spatial integration” in this paper. In the research to achieve a better perception of the Iranian architects approach to organize the space, first of all, we tried to organize and explain the concepts of the mentioned terms. Then, the terms were examined through analyzing a number of Iranian ancient mosques using analytic tools. The incorporation of Iwan and Dome into the simple Arabic mosques, in 11th century, led to the rupture of the open space of bedchamber, it also led to some functional conflicts for the prayers. The results obtained of this study showed that after the transition, architects to resolve problem, constantly follow the concept of spatial integration. It shall be divided to three main derivatives, visual integration, structural integration and visual-structural integration:
- Visual Integration (Spatial transparency): Developing of visual connections between different spaces, through fading the mass around the spaces.
- Structural integration (Spatial continuity): Gradual conversion of a space to another space or Walking inside the spaces without facing any barrier.
-Visual-structural integration (Expansion): Retreating of walls and creating new spaces around a spatial core, full fading of spatial borders and maximum combination two spaces.
The paper also demonstrates despite of some viewpoints, the progress of Iranian traditional architecture never stopped in the different historical periods. In this way, spatial creativity during the Qajar period, at the end of tradition, situated in higher level compare to the past. This study also showed that how architectures can access a continuous and integrated space by innovating new spatial combinations.
• Key words: Spatial integration, transparency, Expansion, Continuity, Iranian mosque.
• This paper has been extracted from the PhD thesis of Saeid Golestani in Art University of Isfahan
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