عنوان مقاله [English]
This institution of endowment is the partial or total assignment or transfer of a property or real estate to certain entities, mostly for the benefit of the public. An objective and distinguished instance of endowment, which has also been investigated in our current paper, is the Naghshe Jahan Square in the city of Isfahan. As a supportive and protective measure, Shah Abbas, I (996 – 1035 A.H.) endowed some real estates to the square after its construction. Though kept preserved through various periods, deeds of endowment had their donating rulers changed, and in some cases new deeds of endowment emerged for the donation of new real estates, resulting in a diverse proprietorship structure with respect to this ensemble.
Longevity and eternity of this square has always been the main priority for which a substantial strategy has been developed from the beginning. A transient look at this ensemble reveals that endowment has played a great role in its performance and longevity. This role is so significant that nothing more than some sporadic buildings would have survived from Naghshe Jahan Square if the endowment system was not there to support and protect it.
An analytical and historical point of view to the issue of proprietorship and its types, as well as investigating the contribution made by the waqf system in the longevity of these buildings is essential for finding right answers to these questions.
The institution of endowment is the partial or total devotion or transfer of a personal property to one or more special persons for taking actions that are mostly altruistic and beneficial to the public.
Endowments have served a wide range of diverse purposes, such as protection of donated properties, hosting some religious and national ceremonies, helping the needy and sustenance of the donor's name.
A tangible instance of endowment, which is also the subject of the present study, is the Naghshejahan Square. King (Shah) Abbas, of the Safavid dynasty, endowed part of the royal properties to this compound in order to have them conserved. endowment deeds of Naghshejahan Square, though ultimately survived, but underwent some changes in the course of the history after it was built, particularly in the Qajar and Pahlavi eras and afterwards in terms of mode of application, and in some cases new endowment deeds have been issued that encompassed new properties.
Probing into the history of deeds of endowments issued from the time of its construction, prioritization of the deeds on the basis of their being principal or subsidiary, how the custodians adhered to the articles of the deeds of endowment, and the great number of endowers of the square are points under investigation in this paper. These are issues that need investigation given the importance and function of endowments in economic, social, and religious areas in the Islamic community in different eras, particularly today.
The research adopts a descriptive-analytic approach, relying particularly on the documents that exist in the relevant libraries, organizations and institutions