نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشیار، دانشکده معماری، دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز
2 پژوهشگر دوره دکترای معماری اسلامی دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز؛ و مربی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه باهنر کرمان
عنوان مقاله [English]
Architecture is the only art whose products are directly exposed and used by society and all people have to deal with it. The sociological look at the architecture, due to this feature, will be easier and at the same time more necessary. Many scholars believe that Iran contemporary architecture is facing challenges which are less studied from the perspective of the sociology. Sociology of Art as one of the branches of sociology examines the relationship between society and art in various aspects. Pierre Bourdieu's theory of "Field" is of theories raised in sociology of art and has provided the possibility to analyze different areas of art. Iran contemporary architecture analysis based on the above theory and an attempt to form Iran contemporary architecture field according to this theory is the subject of this article according to the principles of Field theory. Definition of key concepts such as "Field" and "Habitus" is essential for understanding and implication this theory and will show us the way which should choose for studying Iran contemporary architecture. In forming any field in social research, three operations are considered separately: 1. examining its relationship with the power field, 2. mapping the field objective structure, 3. analysis of habitus of the field actors. Also three major features which have been mentioned for field include: applying force, degree of autonomy, and struggle (battlefield). Studying Iran contemporary architecture in accordance with the above theory, we find that the influence of power field is defined beyond prediction and anticipation. Actors out of the field are active in it and the rules governing the field are ignored. For a field definition of Iran Contemporary architecture that has further integration with field theory, we excluded a bulk of field products (field of housing) of our definition; in this case, three poles are detectable inside the field. 1. Pole related to power field and demanding consolidation of the status quo, 2. Pole related to private sector who is more subservient to employer, yet tries to be close to the power field, and 3. Gifted pole or architects who look architecture as an art rather than a profession. The concerns of these three poles are different in business investment and consequently the gifted pole takes steps in achieving cultural capital and the two others in achieving economic and symbolic capitals. Accordingly, it can be said that the Iranian contemporary architecture suffers confusion, lack of transparency and autonomy, and lacks the main characteristics and Features necessary for the proper function of a field. In general, it can be said that many abnormalities of Iranian contemporary architecture results from the inability of this field to clearly form, define and delimit its field. If actors of architecture field are aware of their constructive role, and do their social structure role to influence the actors' habitus and clear demarcation and the architecture like other fields is able to impress and preserve the autonomy to obtain capital and action of real actors.