عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The issue of tourist accommodation especially in the cities with a high density of visitors has always been a challenge for urban planners and managers. Accommodation is the most important component of the tourism plans. Poor tourism plans and ignoring barriers in relation to their implementations will severely impact on urban systems as well as the satisfaction of visitors. Therefore, it is necessary to discuss the gap between planning and implementation in planning for tourism accommodation. The aim of this research is to analysis the gap between planning and implementation of tourism accommodation programs. To discover the problems in this matter, the approved plan of "Establishment and rehabilitant of appropriate places for low- income pilgrims in Mashhad" has been selected as the case study. This plan commenced in 2009 based on the results of a study titled “the Spatial-Physical Patterns of Accommodation of Low-income Groups around the Holy Shrine in Mashhad”, as a part of the detailed plan of the area. This study focuses on the implementation of this plan in a 3 year period to provide an analysis of the reasons for its ineffectiveness. The main questions are: 1) What are the key components of a tourism plan in order to provide an analysis of the gap between its plan and implementation? 2) How many of the recommended action plans of the case under study have been put into operation in the period between 2009-2012; and 3) Which factors contributed to the infectiveness of the plan and prevented its completion? To provide a logical analysis of the gap between planning and implementation of the case study, the methodology of Pearce (2000) has been used. The data have been sourced through study of the relevant documentation of the accommodation plan for pilgrims in Mashhad, interviews with the planners and managers of the plan, and observation of the various parts of the plan which are under operation. The outcome of the study reveals some of the key factors in the dissatisfaction of both users and the client include inaccurate prediction of the planners, lack of adequate information about appropriate needs of pilgrimages such as ease accessibility to the Shrine, ineffective management, insufficient commitment of management contractor for the implementation of the approved plan, and failure in attracting private investment. These factors have resulted in sequential delays in the implementation of the plan and ultimately its abandonment. To overcome the problems and shortcomings of the accommodation plan for Mashhad pilgrimages, it is thus necessary to review the plan and establish new strategies according to base tourism model. Since the managers in practice understand the challenges of the plan, a dynamic strategic management system can be adopted to keep the link between planners and operational managers. The process should be controlled in different stages to ensure the correct implementation and to cope with unpredicted situations. A multiple choice planning methodology is recommended to be used to overcome unexpected hurdles to help project managers to understand when and how unexpected hurdles can be prevented.