بررسی عوامل موثر بر چگونگی سکونت در محلات نمونه موردی: محله عودلاجان در تهران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد دانشکده معماری، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران

2 دکترای شهرسازی، دانشگاه سوربن، پاریس، فرانسه

چکیده

در شهرهای قدیمی ایران، محله، مکانی واقعی برای زندگی، فضایی برای تعاملات اجتماعی و همچنین مکانی برای فعالیت­های تولیدی و اقتصادی بوده است. با تحولات شهری و دگرگونی سبک زندگی، محله­ها نیز با تغییرات قابل توجهی مواجه شدند. در تهران به عنوان پایتخت، تغییرات ایجاد شده بارزترند. محله عودلاجان که در هسته تاریخی شهر واقع شده و تا سال­های 1340، مطلوب­ترین محله برای زندگی بوده، به دنبال گسترش شهر و شکل­گیری محلات جدید و همچنین تاثیر عوامل دیگر از جمله نفوذ بازار و سیاست­های شهری، دچار تحولات اساسی شده است. در اثر فرآیند جابجایی جمعیت و استقرار گروه­های مهاجر و کم درآمد به جای ساکنان اصیل در محله، نحوه سکونت و رفتار افراد در فضای محله نیز تغییر کرده است. هدف از این پژوهش، شناخت چگونگی سکونت در محله و عوامل موثر بر آن است. مطالعات انجام شده در محله نشان می­دهد که چگونگی سکونت و رفتار ساکنان در محله تا حد قابل توجهی متاثر از تصویر ذهنی آنها از محله است. این تصویر ذهنی از یک طرف بستگی به ویژگی­های فردی ساکنان دارد و از طرف دیگر متاثر از عوامل بیرونی مانند خصوصیات کالبدی محیط، نوع نگاه­ها از بیرون به محله و سیاست­های شهری است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Studying the factors affecting the habitation methods in the neighborhoods: example of Oudlajan neighborhood in Tehran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Pirouz Hanachee 1
  • Naimeh Rezaei 2
چکیده [English]

The neighborhood is a major factor in urbanism where habitation is characterized.In Iranian traditional cities, the concept of neighborhood demonstrates the values of well-being, identity and sociability. Neighborhoods can be approached into the following ways: external view that includes official boundaries, issues related to urban development and urban management. Internal view that is based on the opinions of those who are living or commuting there regularly.Modality of habitation and the relationship between individuals and neighborhood come in many forms, depending on individual characteristics, social group, generation and his life story. With urban transformations and lifestyles changes, neighborhoods have experienced major mutations especially in Tehran as capital. Oudlajan is one of five old neighborhoods that formed the city of Tehran in the Safavid era. During the Qajar era until the first decades of the Pahlavi era, this neighborhood that was near the government center and the Grand Bazar had an important residential function. It was most attractive neighborhood of the city and the place of residence of noble families. From the 1950s, signs population displacement appeared. With the expansion of the city and the design of new neighborhoods, the original residents of Oudlajan moved to other areas by up to low-income population, including immigrants and workpeople. Many residential buildings in the neighborhood were transformed into the bazaar serving areas, such as warehouses and workshops. Consequently the neighborhood has seen great changes in all the physical, social, demographic and economic aspects. The objective of this research is to recognize the habitation method in Oudlajan and the factors that influence it. Our studies show that the habitation method is influenced by the perception of the neighborhood in the spirit of the population. This perception depends on one side to the personal characteristics of the individual such as age, sex, ethnicity, culture and socio-economic profile and on the other side to the external factors such as physical characteristics of the place, the approaches of the society towards the neighborhood and urban policies. Replacing the original population by immigrant groups, as well as the penetration of economic and industrial activities in the neighborhood has transformed the image of the area permanently and profoundly. Interviews with residents allowed us to gather information about their socio-economic profile, their relationship with the neighborhood, their perception of the neighborhood and their sense of attachment to place. We have found that most of the residents have chosen Oudlajan because of lack of economic capacity to live somewhere else and the short distance between the home and workplace. We did not see any sense of attachment to the place among residents. They have their residence in the neighborhood but without “appropriating space”. Our studies show a lack of interest towards historical buildings and places among the inhabitants. They tend to live in a modern building and neighborhood. This lack of interest derives one side from the problems that exist in the ancient buildings and places and on the other side from the perception of the inhabitants towards this neighborhood.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Neighborhood
  • Habitat
  • Sense of Place
  • Perception
  • Subjective Imagination