بر‌هم‌کنش جریان‌هوا، دما و راحتی در فضاهای باز شهری مطالعه موردی اقلیم گرم و خشک ایران

نویسنده

دانشیار گروه تکنولوژی، دانشکده معماری، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

باروچ‌گیونی معتقد‌است که جریان هوا در فضاهای شهریِ اقلیم گرم و مرطوب، غالباً موجب آسایش حرارتی مردم است. اگر متغیر باد با سایه هم‌ساز شود، آنگاه افراد در دماهای بالاتر از دمای راحتی می‌توانند به فعالیت خود در سطح شهر ادامه‌دهند. این نظر گیونی را نباید به اقلیم گرم‌ و‌خشک و یا سرد تعمیم دهیم. در اقلیم گرم‌ و‌خشک، جریان هوا تابعِ دمای محیط، دو اثر کاملاً متفاوت بر افراد دارد. در یک حالت باعث آسایش و در حالتی دیگر باعث عدم آسایش‌ است. در اقلیم سرد نیز تاثیر جریان هوا برآسایش منفی‌است. هدف اصلی این گفتار پاسخ این پرسش است که مرز دمایی بین آسایش و عدم‌آسایش در فضاهای شهری ناشی از جریان هوا، در سرعت‌های مختلف چیست؟ به دیگر عبارت، برهم‌کنش دما و جریان هوا در چه مقادیر عددی برای راحتی شهری معنا پیدا‌می‌کند؟ اگر بتوان چنین اعدادی را پیدا کرد، آنگاه طراح شهری با دیدی علمی عناصر شهری را بر اساس تین دو متغیر به‌خدمت می‌گیرد. از این راه او می‌تواند به تطبیق الگوی جریان‌هوا با الگوی دما دست یابد. این مطالعه به اقلیم گرم و‌خشک ایران محدود بوده و در پی پاسخی مبتنی بر کار میدانی در سطح شش شهر کشور خواهد بود. نتایج بدست آمده قابل تعمیم به همه‌ی مناطق گرم‌و‌خشک ایران خواهد‌بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparative Analysis Between Air Movement, Air Temperature and Comfort Case study: Hot and Dry region of Iran

نویسنده [English]

  • Shahin Heidari
چکیده [English]

Sustainable and energy efficient design issues are key to the way good buildings are designed in the 21st century. No building designer today should be without the basic skills offered by the unique multidisciplinary studies of architectural design, based on energy use in buildings. However, this paper is focusing of effect of air movement on human comfort, as a key element of building design. Two variables namely; air movement between spaces and shading of spaces are important in urban design, particularly in hot and dry condition. They are also equally important for human thermal comfort, when people are walking or working or relaxing in the urban spaces. Therefore, as related to urban design, the main concern is how to provide the potential for cooling by suitable air movement and enough shading spaces. Under harsh condition of hot-dry cities, it is difficult to provide good outdoor open spaces such as squares, streets and so on, especially when the ambient wind speed is under high ambient temperature. Regarding the daytime conditions of cities in this region, it is commonly assumed that urban temperatures are higher than rural ones, due to lack of vegetation and heat generated in the towns. Because of such phenomena, air motion sometimes is horrible and shade of urban sepses is not easy to get. Hot-dry regions commonly have strong winds during daytime, where outdoor temperatures exceed about 32°C, so urban open spaces are not desirable. As mentioned above, the main objectives related to the street layout are to provide maximum shade in summer for pedestrians and minimum solar exposure of the buildings along the streets. In line with shading, the effect of air movement is essential and depends on environmental temperature and humidity, as well as on the clothing and metabolic rate of people. When air temperature is above the skin temperature, the effect of air movement will be the same as other climatic factors and the increase of air movement will raise the skin temperature. As the temperature changes, the level of clothing, the air movement (which can cool the body by convection and/or evaporation of sweat) and the moisture of the skin will change. We should know, air movement is more noticeable when the air is cool and the difference between skin and air temperature is large. Conversely, if the air is only slightly below skin temperature, very large increases in air speed are needed to achieve an increase in convective cooling. However, in what temperature this change will happen? This is the main question of the present paper. ASHRAE standard - 55 sets an upper limit of around 0.2 m/s (assuming typical turbulence around 40%) for air velocities within the basic comfort zone to reduce the risk of discomfort from drafts. In this study air movement reduced discomfort from heat at temperature of 32.5?C; below this temperature there were few subjects indicating heat discomfort. A theoretical analysis of the data suggests that where the air velocity is above 0.1 m/s, this allowance can be equivalent to rising the comfort temperature. However, air velocity is one of the important variables for achieving comfort condition without using electrical or mechanical energies.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Air Movement
  • Air Temperature
  • Building Design
  • Human Comfort
  • urban design