واکاوی ریشه‌های تحول و نقد دوره دوم آموزش معماری در دانشکده هنرهای زیبا (1347-1359)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

هدف این تحقیق واکاوی ریشه های تحول و نقد دوره دوم آموزش آکادمیک معماری از سال تا 1348 تا 1359 در دانشکده هنرهای زیبا است. روش به‌کار رفته در این تحقیق تحلیل تفسیری-تاریخی است. بررسی ‌های تحقیق نشان می‌دهد که ریشه‌ های تحول با توجه به عوامل بیرونی نظیر تحولات در مقیاس جهانی، تحولات اجتماعی، فرهنگی و اقتصادی کشور و تغییر سیستم آموزشی در دانشگاه تهران، و عامل درونی تغییر شرایط در دانشکده هنرهای زیبا بود. از اصلی‌ترین نقاط قوت این تحول توجهاتی در زمینه‌های مباحث تئوریک معماری، تحولات روز دنیا، مسائل اجتماعی و مقولات شهرسازی بود. مهم ترین نقاط ضعف را می‌توان عدم تحقق سیستم منسجم آموزشی، غلبه بعد نظری بر عملی و عدم‌توجه کافی به ابعاد فنی و اجرایی دانست.
به نظر می‌رسد چنانچه تحولات حالتی تدریجی می‌یافت به موفقیت ‌های بیشتری منجر می‌شد. کوتاهی این دوره از نظر زمانی در عدم شکل‌گیری یک سیستم آموزشی منسجم مؤثر بوده است. با توجه به تاثیرپذیری سیستم آموزش حال‌حاضر معماری در کشور از تحولات این دوره، به نظر می‌رسد توجه به اهداف و روش های این دوره، هم ‌گام با تحولات روز دنیا و با در نظر گرفتن نیازهای در حال تحول جامعه ایران در تقویت آموزش حال‌حاضر معماری موثر است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis and Criticizing the Roots of Evolutions in the Second Era of Architectural Education in the Faculty of Fine Arts (1968-1980)

نویسنده [English]

  • Maryam Gharavi Khansari
University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Architectural education is a key factor that affects the architectural procedures and products in every society. The goal of this research is to analyze the roots and criticizing the second era of architectural education from 1968 to 1980 in the faculty of fine arts. This research believes that such studying can help to recognize the current situation and programming for promoting architectural education. The main questions of this research are: What were the roots of evaluations and aims in the second era of education in the faculty of fine arts? What were the positive and negative effects of such an evaluation on architectural education? The research method is based on an interpretive-historical approach.
The process of the research is based on three main steps. The first step includes the primary recognition of the first era of education and introducing the main positive and negative aspects in this regard. The second step introduces the characteristics of the new educational program. The third step analyses the positive and negative effects of this evaluation in the architectural education of the faculty of fine arts.
This study shows that factors such as world social, cultural, and economic evaluations, the country's social, cultural, and economic evaluations, and changes in the educational system of the University of Tehran were effective as external factors. The contextual conditions of the faculty of fine arts were also effective in this relationship as the internal factor. The main positive points of this evaluation were the attention toward theoretical discussions of architecture, scientific evolutions in the world, traditional and vernacular architecture in Iran, social and urban problems, using new education methods, prefabrication methods, publishing research books and papers and restoration and revitalizing historical buildings. The external damages were mainly from the government's will and political pressures and failure to fully implement the term-unit system at the University of Tehran. The main negative points of this evolution were lack of realization of an organized system, the domination of theoretical discussions on practical programs, lack of enough attention toward technical and executive problems, weakness in the supply of executive staff, multiplicity in educational procedures, lack of sufficient emphasis on indigenous identity and architecture, the qualitative decline in final projects and weakening of the studio education system.
The main results of the research show that the evolution of the system was inevitable according to the global changes. But it was necessary to consider a mechanism to adapt the system with the contextual situation. It seems that the shortness of this period was effective in the lack of realization of an organized system. So if the evolutions have happened in a more gradual process, it may maintain more success. As the current system is strongly affected by these evolutions, it seems that paying attention to deepening the excellent aims of the evolution as well as considering the world developments and the evolving needs of country society are effective in empowering the strong points and eliminating of weak points.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Faculty of Fine Arts
  • Faculty of architecture
  • Architectural Education
  • Bauhaus educational system