A model for determining desirable construction density (F.A.R) for neighborhoods with especial respect to cultural factors (The case studies: Iran & Takhti neighborhoods, Tehran)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Professor, School of Urban Plannig, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

2 Master of Urban Planning, School of Urban Planning, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran


Planning for urban density is one of the most important problems facing contemporary urban planning at both national and universal. Urbanized world - that is changing permanently - needs an optimum extent of urban density which can consider both quantitative (efficient use of land and urban infrastructures, reducing energy consumption, etc.) and qualitative requirements (such as providing desirable neighborhood, vitality, mobility, etc.) of urban planning. Re-Defining construction density (F.A.R) in inner city neighborhoods, which are experiencing the renewal process, is in such a way that disregarding the cultural factor is obvious. Elimination of privacy of houses, destruction the functional and altitudinal territories of historical buildings and zones (as the symbols of culture in urban fabric) announce the absence of an efficient model for determining construction density which takes into account cultural factors as it is a basic principal in urban planning.
This paper aims to define a model for determining construction density that emphasizes on cultural factors; and tries to make the pretext of re-presence of culture in inner city neighborhoods, by linking the two concepts of culture and construction density in both practical and theoretical context. Hence, this quantitative research, in a descriptive – analytical method, analyzes the relationship between culture and building density in three dimensions: quantitative aspect of construction density (as the cause of problem), quantitative – qualitative aspect of construction density (for linking the culture and F.A.R in terms of perceived density) and qualitative aspect of construction density (through the indexes which are derived from or related to culture). These analyses are accomplished in two old neighborhoods in Tehran, named Iran and Takhti. The renewal process is completely occurred in Takhti, so that it is a neighborhood with 4 to 5-storey flats frequently; while its original form has been undetached houses in 1 or 2-storey and all of the problems mentioned above are taken place in it clearly. In the other hand, Iran neighborhood is in the middle way of Takhti’s destiny. Its several historical buildings and areas are destroying; the houses type is changing to flats. Because of this, the old citizens are leaving the neighborhood and its and famous community is eliminating. Desirable and suitable F.A.R with respect to cultural factors can prevent arising more problems providing a favorite neighborhood.
Ranking the ability of neighborhoods’ blocks for densification is undertaken via TOPSIS method - that is a technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution – then, by making spatial pyramids for each block and calculating their differences to status quo, suggests a model for determining desired construction density with especial respect to cultural factors, while it has attention to economic aspects. Statistical analysis by Microsoft Excel, spatial analysis of ArcGIS, analytical drawings in SketchUp are used besides applying AHP model for scoring the indexes and Likert Scale for quantification of qualitative measurements. Data collection is done via library data, surveying and questionnaire. At last, the model is stated in a function which is:


آشوری، داریوش (1380)، تعریف­­ها و مفهوم فرهنگ، انتشارات آگاه، تهران.
اصغرپور، محمدجواد (1375)، تصمیم­گیری­های چندمعیاره، انتشارات دانشگاه تهران، تهران.
آکیولی، کلودیو، داویدسون، فوربس (1390)، تراکم در توسعه­ی شهری، ترجمه­ی نجما اسمعیل­پور و علیرضا اشتیاقی، انتشارات آرمانشهر، تهران.
توسلی، محمود (1371)، اصول و روش­های طراحی شهری و فضاهای مسکونی در ایران، جلد اول، انتشارات مرکز مطالعات و تحقیقات شهرسازی و معماری ایران، تهران.
خاکی، غلامرضا (1378)، روش تحقیق با رویکردی به پایان­نامه­نویسی، انتشارات مرکز تحقیقات علمی کشور با همکاری کانون فرهنگی انتشاراتی درایت، تهران.
راپاپورت، اموس (1392)، فرهنگ، معماری و طراحی، ترجمه ماریا برزگر و مجید یوسف­نیا پاشا، انتشارات شلفین، تهران.
زبردست، اسفندیار (1376)، جزوه­ی درسی آمار در شهرسازی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران.
شهرداری تهران (1393)، آمار صدور پروانه­های تخریب و نوسازی.
عزیزی، محمدمهدی (1393)، تراکم در شهرسازی: اصول و معیارهای تعیین تراکم شهری، چاپ پنجم، انتشارات دانشگاه تهران، تهران.
عزیزی، محمدمهدی و آراسته، مجتبی (1390)، تبیین پراکنده رویی شهری بر اساس شاخص تراکم ساختمانی، نشریه هویت شهر، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، شماره 8، صفحات 15-5.
مشهودی، سهراب (1386)، مبانی طرح­های سیال شهری، انتشارت شرکت پردازش و برنامه­ریزی شهری، تهران.
مرکز آمار ایران، (1390)،  نتایج سرشماری عمومی نفوس و مسکن 1390، بخش­های جمعیت، خانوار، مسکن و تحصیلات.
مؤسسه سیمای جوان (1386)، طرح ساختاری ساماندهی و توسعه فضاهای فرهنگی شهر تهران، شرکت توسعه فضاهای فرهنگی شهرداری تهران.
مهندسین مشاور طرح و کاوش (1391)، طرح راهبردی حریم پایتخت، مرکز مطالعات و برنامه­ریزی شهر تهران.
Brons, Lajos (2005), Indirect measurement of regional culture in the Netherlands, Journal of Royal Dutch Geographical Society KNAG, 97(5), pp. ?????.
Cheng, Vicky (2010), Understanding Density and High density, Designing High-density Cities for Social and Environmental Sustainability, Edited by Edward Ng, Published by Earthscan, UK & USA.
Churchman, Araz (1999), Disentangling the Concept of Density, Journal of Planning Literature, 13(389), pp??????.
Freestone, Robert & Gibson, Chris (2006), The Cultural Dimension of Urban Planning Strategies: An Historical Perspective, Culture, Urbanism and Planning, Edited by Javier Monclús and Manuel Guàrdia, Published by ASHGATE eBook.
Jenks, Mike & Dempsey, Nicola (2005), The Language and Meaning of Density, Future Forms and Design for Sustainable Cities, Edited by Mike Jenks and Nicola Dempsey, Published by Elsevier.
Newman, Peter & Hogan, Trevor (1981), A Review of Urban Density Models: Toward a Resolution of the Conflict between Populace and Planner, Human Ecology, 9(3), pp ?????.
Oluwole, Olusegun (2011), Stimulus for Change: The Intersection between Culture and the Built Environment, International Journal of Technology, Knowledge and Society, 7(1), pp ????.
Peponis, John; Allen, Douglas; French, Steve; Scoppa, Martin & Brown, Jason (2007), Street Connectivity and Urban Density: spatial measures and their correlation, 6th International Space Syntax Symposium, Istanbul.
Sacco, Pier & Crociata, Alessandro (2013), A Conceptual Regulatory Framework for the Design and Evaluation of Complex, Participative Cultural Planning Strategies, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 35(5), pp ?????.
United Cities and Local Governments - Committee on culture (2006), Local policies for cultural diversity, Barcelona, www.agenda21culture.net.
Vicuña, Magdalena (2012), The Forms of Residential Density in the Contemporary City: The case of Santiago, Chile, Eighth International Space Syntax Symposium, Santiago, PUC.