Integrated Design of Shading Devices of Southern Building Envelope of a Dormitory in Tehran; Multi-objective Analysis of Cooling, Heating, Lighting, and Rainwater Harvesting

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD of Researcher -Architectural Engineering, Department of Architecture, School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture, School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture, School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

4 Associate Professor, Department of Architecture, School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Ira


Energy consumption in the building sector accounts for a significant part of the world's total energy. Recent studies in the building and construction, regardless of the results and performance improvements, try to find an optimal way to integrate all factors that affect building behavior in a multi-objective and integrated way. To do so, the integrated and multi-objective analysis approach is the title intended for this purpose. Integrated design is a comprehensive holistic approach to design that brings together specialisms usually considered separately. It attempts to take into consideration all the factors and modulations necessary for a decision-making process. Finding the most balanced design option while considering several functions is the problem of this research, which can be realized in the integrated design process. Therefore, the study aims to generate an integrated design process, in which aspects of cooling, heating, lighting, and rainwater harvesting are addressed in the design of the southern shading devices of a conventional dormitory building. Finally, the most balanced option that provides the mentioned aspects to a relative balance can be chosen by the architect or designer. To achieve this goal, this study uses the simulation-based method and EnergyPlus software with a quantitative approach. First, the thermal, cooling, and lighting functions of the cases were evaluated. Then, in the development section, the productivity potential of the photovoltaic system and rainwater collection were analyzed as independent variables. Building envelopes of energy-efficient buildings are not simply barriers between interior and exterior; they are building systems that create comfortable spaces by actively responding to the building's external environment, and substantially reducing the buildings' energy consumption. Shading systems are one of the important elements of building envelopes. Beyond the six cases of shading devices, that were studied and been analyzed, which were generated in the integrated and multi-objective design process, the case with maximum shading logic in the summer design day that shaped with a 35-degree slope on its overhang and 65-cm depth and triangular east-west fins was the best choice due to this research criterion. This shading control in addition to providing an excellent cooling load, had a relatively high potential for useful daylighting. Additionally, it had the best performance in terms of absorbing sunlight to generate electricity and collect rainwater. Although the heating load of this case is relatively high, with respect to the challenge of providing cooling in the warm season of Tehran, it can be said that compared to other alternatives and considering all aspects, it performs best in presenting an integrated, multidimensional and balanced approach. Other cases have been examined and analyzed in detail in the research process. Although each of the other cases may be performing best in one particular aspect due to its geometry features, in the multi-objective vision it could not present an integrated and balanced performance in other aspects. It can be concluded that only with slight variations in the geometry of shading devices in the building's façade, the mentioned aspects can be achieved through an integrated design thinking process.


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