Explaining the Factors Affecting Tenure Security in Spontaneous Settlements; Case Study: Tehran Metropolitan Area

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Professor, School of Urban Planning, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran.Tehran, Iran.

2 Professor, School of Urban Plannig, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

3 Ph.D. student of Urban Planning, Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


The concept of tenure security in spontaneous settlements is largely linked to the right to live for the inhabitants of these areas and is defined as living in a place without fear of losing it. In other words, tenure security is the right of all individuals and groups to have adequate support against forced eviction. The fact is that securing shelter is a basic and necessary principle for improving the living conditions of the poor that are living in these settlements. Also, it is the best way to reduce poverty and considered as the first step in reducing the vulnerability and constraints facing urban poor. Now this question arises that what factors affect the formation of tenure security in spontaneous settlements. The purpose of this study is to explain the factors affecting the formation of tenure security in Tehran Metropolitan Area. For this purpose, based on theoretical foundations, including important theories and significant researches in association with framework of mentioned objective, a two-level approach to explain the tenure security has been proposed. According to this approach, the merging and combining of factors that create security tenure in legal, de facto, and social dimensions in minds of individuals, make them perceive security. In order to measure the aforementioned model, which was determined by 13 criteria and 48 indicators, the settlements of Eslam-Abad, Khat-e Chahar-e Hesar, Hesar-e Amir, Emamzadeh Ali and Mian-Abad (located in Tehran's metropolitan area) were selected as case studies. The research method of this study is causal-analytic and used the survey include administration and completion of 473 questionnaires which to gather the required information. In order to measure the performance of the proposed model, the techniques of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling in the AMOS software have been used. The results of research indicate that the model fit is acceptable and about 90% of the security of tenure variance at the 99.9% confidence level is explained by the model. The effect of criteria on the perception of tenure security indicates that the existence of supportive networks (with coefficient of 0.947), cohesion and social solidarity (with coefficient of 0.753), and the criterion of the type of possession and ownership document (with coefficient of 0.650) had the greatest impact on tenure security. Altogether, the legal, de facto, and social dimensions of tenure security, with effect of 15.4, 61.3 and 23.3 percent, have been able to influence the perception of residents security status. According to the findings of this research, it can be said that establishment of any attitude, drawing of vision regarding the tenure security and, at the same time, planning and action to improve it in spontaneous settlements due to simultaneous attention to legal, de facto, social and perceived tenure security will be possible. Accordingly, the promotion of tenure security should be part of interconnected actions such as: respect for the right to live, strengthening of support networks, promotion of local capital, creation of employment opportunities, provision of vital infrastructure, local and urban services, provision of social services and appropriate legal options to meet the needs of residents.


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