Check the quality of the security permeability edge of space (Case study: spatial analysis Timcheh structure in traditional Bazar)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Faculty Member of Yasooj Islamic Azad University, Yasooj, Iran.

2 Faculty Member of Yasooj Islamic Azad University, Yasooj, Iran


In the historical form of the cities of Iran, the Bazzar is considered as an integral part of the city's structure which has formed the core and the main axis of the city and has guided the bones and development of the city. On the other hand, due to the economic role of the Bazzar in the city, the issue of security has been of particular importance. Therefore, it seems that the builders of this kind of buildings have special attention to their physical aspects in order to achieve this goal. For example, the establishment of Qaisarra as a space for the supply of valuable goods in the central Bazzar segment could be a effect in securing these usages. In this regard, it seems that the qualities of the edges of the Bazzar can also have a significant effect on this. Accordingly, the present study by investigates and analyzes various edges in the area around the Bazzar, examines the level of security in these spaces. On the other hand, Timcheh’s space was selected as a case study from among the various spaces available on the Bazzar. Therefore, the present study, while analyzing the permeability quality of the outer edges of several Timches, as part of the Bazzar space, addresses the issue of security in this type of space. In this research, space syntax technique has been used to analyze the configuration of the space of the towns. However, it is necessary to note that this technique is generally used to analyze the spatial structure of environments that consist of several small spaces. While the Timches in their physical structure are composed of spaces such as store, resting place, cellar, courtyards, corridors, entrances, Hashti, and so on. This justifies the application of this technique in the analysis of this kind of construction. After reviewing the literature, three indicators including “readablity”, “visual control and access”, and “space integration” were considered as theoretical framework of the research and tools like “Step depth”, “Integration”, “Connectivity”, “Physical accessibility(Metric depth)”, “Isovist area”, and “Isovist perimeter” were used to analyze them in the Depthmap software environment. The results of the study showed that the impermeable Timcheh in terms of readability index is in a desirable level, and due to having only one input, it is possible to control the entrance and exit of individuals. However, the four-directional permeable Timcheh in term of control and spatial integration indicator are at a higher level than the other Timches this has a significant impact on the security of these Timches. Also, the edge properties of the input (s) are more important in providing space security. Because it determines the amount of accumulated load to space and thus the permeability to space. The location of the Timches is one of the other things that have a significant impact on their security and their creation of crime scenes. Moreover, the presence of concave geometries in the space structure leads to inadequate visual visibility and the possibility of a massive increase in space.


ایراندوست، کیومرث و بهمنی اورامانی، آرمان (1390)، تحولات بازار سنتی در شهرهای ایران (مطالعه­ی موردی: بازار شهر کرمانشاه)، مطالعات شهر ایرانی اسلامی، شماره 5، صص 5-14.
بلاغـی، عبدالحجـه (1386)، گزیـده تاریـخ تهـران، ؟؟؟؟، تهران.
بنتلی، ای ین؛ الکک، آلن؛ مورین، پال؛ مکگین، سو؛ لسمیت،گراهام (1393)، محیط­­های پاسخده (کتاب راهنمای طراحان)، انتشارات دانشگاه علم و صنعت، تهران.
پورجعفر، علی و صداریی، امیر (1393)، تحلیل تطبیقی تیمچه­های با فضای مرکزی غیرمسقف به عنوان فضاهای شهری تجاری در بازار با تاکید بر ویژگی­های تیمچه صرافیان در استان فارس، مدیریت شهری، شماره­40، صص 7-21.
پیرنیا، محمد کریم، (1387)، آشنایی با معماری اسلامی ایران، نشر سروش دانش، تهران.
حبیب، فرح؛ عباسی، زهرا؛ مختاباد، سید مصطفی (1394)، تدوین اصول و معیارهای ادراک فضایی در معماری بازارهای سنتی ایران، مدیریت شهری، شماره­ 39، صص291-316.
حسینی، آرزو و پورنادری، حسین (1393)، مطالعه­ی تطبیقی فضای معماری کاروانسراهای صفوی در بازار اصفهان مطالعه­ی موردی: کاروانسرای شاه، ساروتقی، مادر شاه، مطالعات تطبیقی هنر، سال4، شماره 8، صص 81-97.
رهایی، امید (1393)، هویت فرهنگی و اثرات آن بر روشهای بومی تهویة طبیعی بازار قدیم دزفول، راسته صنعتگران، باغ نظر، شماره 24، سال 39، صص 10-46.
ریسمانچیان و امید، بل، سایمون (1390)، بررسی جدا افتادگی فضایی با فت­های فرسوده در ساختار شهر تهران به روش چیدمان فضا، باغ نظر، سال هشتم، شماره­17، 69-80
ریسمانچیان، امید؛ پوردیهیمی، شهرام؛ دیده­بان، محمد(1392)، رابطه­ی بین "ویژگی­های شناختی" و"پیکره بندی" فضایی محیط مصنوع، تجربه­ای در دزفول، مطالعات معماری ایران، شماره­ی4، صص ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟.
ساربان قلی ستاری، حسن و جدایی، امیر (1390)،بررسی و تحلیل طرح­های کاربندی به­کاررفته در تیمچه­های بازار تبریز، مطالعات شهر ایرانی اسلامی، شماره 5، صص 29-46.
 سرایی، محمد حسین (1389)، تحولات بازارهای ایرانی اسلامی(مطالعه­ی موردی بازار یزد)، مطالعات شهر ایرانی اسلامی، شماره2، صص 25-37.
عباس­زادگان، مصطفی (1381)، طراحی شهری: روش چیدمان فضا در فرایند طراحی شهری با نگاهی به شهر یزد، مدیریت شهری، شماره­ 9، صص 64-.75
عباس­زادگان، مصطفی و آذری، عباس، (1388)، بررسی نقش فضایی بازار در ساختار شهرهای ایرانی (با بهره­گیری از روش چیدمان فضا) نمونه­ی موردی: تبریز کرمان اصفهان تهران، آبادی، شماره ­64، 26صص؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟.
لینچ، کوین، (1372)، سیمای شهر ، ترجمه­ی منوچهر مزینی، انتشارات دانشگاه تهران، تهران.
محمودی نژاد، هادی؛ آجوک، سوزان؛ تقوایی، علی­اکبر؛ انصاری­، مجتبی (­1386)، جلوگیری از طراحی شهری از طریق طراحی محیطی، فصلنامه­ی معماری ایران، شماره­ی29و30، صص 90-98.
مدنی پور، علی (1379)، طراحی فضای شهری: نگرشی بر فرایندی اجتماعی و مکانی، ترجمه­ی فرهاد مرتضایی، شرکت پردازش و برنامه­ریزی شهری، تهران.
معماریان، غلامحسین (1381)، نحو فضای معماری، صفه، شماره­ 38 ، صص 75-85.
نیومن، اسکار (1394)، خلق فضای قابل دفاع، رواقی، فائزه و صابر، کاوه، انتشارات طحـان­، هله، تهران.
Bajunid. Anniz Fazli Ibrahim, Mohamed Yusoff Abbas, Abdul Hadi Nawawi, Wan Norhishamuddin Wan Rodi (2014), Cul-de-sac Courtyard Physical Environment Evaluation Toolkit (CPEET), Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, No.153, pp. 148– 158.
Chiaradia, A; Hillier, B; Schwander, C & Wedderburn, M (2012), Compositional and urban form effects on centres in Greater London, In Proceedings of the ICE - Urban Design and Planning, Vol. 165(1), pp.21–42.
Fisher, B & Nasar, JL (1992), Fear in relation to three site features: Prospect, refuge and escape, Environment and Behavior, 24, pp. 35-62
Griz, C & L, Amorim (2015), When luxury is necessary, Apartment projects in Recife – Brazil, Proceedings of the 10th International Space Syntax Symposium, London.
 Hillier, B (1985), The Nature of the artificials, Geoforum Special Issue on the link between the nature and
human sciences
, 16, pp.163-178.
Hillier, B (2007), Space is the machine: a configurational theory of architecture, Cambridge, University of Cambridge, Reproduced in 2007 by Space Syntax, UK.
Hillier, B & Iida, S (2005), Network and psychological effects in urban movement, In Proceedings of Spatial Information Theory: International Conference (Vol. 3693), Ellicottsville, N.Y., U.S.A: Springer-Verlag, pp.475–490.
Hillier, B; Chiaradia, A; Hanson, J; Grajewski, T & Xu, J (1993), Natural movement: or, configuration and attraction in urban pedestrian movement, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, Vol. 20, pp.29–66.
Hillier, B; Honson, J & Graham, H (1987), Ideas are in things: an Application of space syntax method to
discovering house genotype, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 14, pp.363-385.
Hillier, B; Honson, J & Peponis, J (1984), What do we mean by building Function?, (E. J. Powell, Ed.)
Designing for Building Utilisation, 61-72.
Hillier, B; Leaman, A; Stansall, P & Bedford, M (1976), Space Syntax, Environment and Planning B, 3, pp.147-185.
Hodgson, P; French, K & Major, R (2007), Avian movement across abrupt ecological edges: Differential
responses to housing density in an urban matrix, Landscape and Urban Planning, 79­, pp.266–272
Hosseini, B; Karimi Azeri, A; Madani, I & Velashani, S (2015), Effect of Physical Factors on the Sense of Security of the People in Isfahan's Traditional Bazaar, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences , 165 – 174, pp.??????????? .
Kwon, S & Sailer, K (2015), Seeing and being seen inside a museum and a department store. A comparison study in visibility and co-presence patterns, Proceedings of the 10th International Space syntax Symposium, London.
Li, Chen (2008-9), Reinterpretation of Traditional Chinese Courtyard House, Master Theses,University of Tennessee  Knoxville,
McWilliam, W; Brown, R; Eagles, P & Seasons, M (2014), Barriers to the effective planning and management of residential encroachment within urban forest edges: A Southern Ontario, Canada case study, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 13, pp.48–62.
Mustafa, F; Ali, Sanusi & Hassan, Ahmad (2010),  Spatial-Functional Analysis of Kurdish Courtyard Houses in Erbil City, American J. of Engineering and Applied Sciences, No.3­(3), pp.560-568.
Okabe, A & Sugihara, K (2012), Spatial Analysis Along Networks: Statistical and Computational Methods, John Wiley & Sons, ???????????.
Oswald, M. J (2011), A Justified Plan Graph Analysis of The Early Houses(1975-1985) of Glem Murcutt,
Nexus Network Journal [e-journal], 13 (3), pp. 737-762.
Penone, C; Machon, N; Julliard, R & Le Viol, I (2012), Do railway edges provide functional connectivity for plant communities in an urban context?, Biological Conservation, 148, pp.126–133.
Peponis, J & Bafna, S & Zhang, Z (2008), The connectivity of streets: reach and directional distance, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, Vol. 35(5), p.881 – 901.
Peponis, J; Zimring, C & Choi, Y. K (1990), Finding the building in wayfinding, Environment and
22, pp.590-555.
Porta, S; Crucitti, P & Latora, V (2006), The Network Analysis of Urban Streets: A Primal Approach, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and Its Applications, Vol. 369(2), pp.853–866.
Smith, N (2014), Beyond top-down/bottom-up:Village transformation on China’s urban edge, Cities, 41, pp. 209–220.
Tandy, C.R. V (1967), The Isovist method of landscape survey, in Symposium: Methods of Landscape Analysis Ed( HC Murray) London, Landscape Research Group, pp.9-10.
Van Nes, A & López, M  (2007),  space and crime in dutch built environments: macro and micro scale spatial conditions for residential burglaries and thefts from cars”Proceedings, 6th International Space Syntax Symposium, İstanbul.
Varoudis, T & S. Psarra (2014), Beyond two dimensions: Architecture through three-dimensional visibility graph analysis, Journal of space syntax, No.5, pp. 91-108.
Weisman, J (1982), Evaluating architectural legibility: way-finding in in the built, Environment and Behavior, March, Vol. 13, pp. 189-20.