Experimental Study of temperature, relative humidity and wind speed of traditional houses at hot and humid climate of Iran (Case study: Tabib and Nozari houses in Bushehr)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 shiraz university

2 mechanical school, shiraz university, iran.

3 Shiraz university, Faculty of art and architecture

4 Assistant professor, Faculty of art and architecture, Shiraz university, Shiraz, Iran


Today, considerable amount of energy is spent for heating and cooling indoor environments to provide thermal comfort for the building's residents. Availability of modern heating and cooling systems caused to pay no attention to non-active solutions in the modern architecture .Greenhouse gas emissions and global warming in recent years and high energy consumption in the residential sector caused more attention to be paid on climatic strategies and more effort is made to use such strategies in local and traditional architecture in modern buildings. Building and climatic strategies used in local and traditional buildings for so many years based on trial and error and these experiences are going to be forgotten. The most traditional buildings in hot and dry climates have been comfortable for residences passively compared to modern buildings and consumed less energy for air conditioning. Located in southern part of Iran, Bushehr with hot and humid climate has a spectacular vernacular architecture. It has many creative architectural aspects applied in order to reduce high air temperature and humidity. These features use two main strategies to moderate the harsh weather condition: shading and natural ventilation. This article aims to identify the effects of thermal passive strategies and features used in vernacular architecture of Bushehr through experimental study. As so in the first step, thermally passive features and elements were described. Second two case studies were selected for experimental data study, one in the coastal area and another inside the city context. The main climate variables including air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed were recorded in a week from 27th September to 27th October. The sensor data loggers were installed in different spaces in the case studied buildings. Based on the results the average indoor air temperature in case studies is 6% less compared to outdoor temperature. While relative humidity is about 18% less than outdoor relative humidity, indoor wind velocity is in thermal comfort zone. The results show that the main passive features used to provide indoor thermal comfort are natural ventilation and shading and the techniques are as follow: a) Catching desired wind flow from sea. b) Use of light color on exterior building envelops. c) Application of materials with low thermal capacity, such as wood in ceiling, windows and shading devices. d) Application of porous local materials (coral stone and gypsum) to prevent humidity absorption in building envelops. e) Design of deep veranda, and shading elements and semi-open spaces called “Tarmeh” to make cool shading spaces. f) Use of central courtyard to make microclimates with lower air temperature and humidity. g) Room arrangement around a central courtyard to provide natural cross ventilation transferring wind flow from alleys to rooms. h) Considerably high height to width ratio of alleys helping to increase wind flow speed and shade building exterior walls. The lessons learned from Bushehr vernacular architecture can be used to define guidelines for new building design in hot and humid climate which leads to reduction in energy consumption and sustainable architecture.


رنجبر، ا؛ پورجعفر، م و خلیجی، ک (1389)، خلاقیت های طراحی اقلیمی متناسب با جریان باد در بافت قدیم بوشهر، باغ نظر، 13، صص 17–34.
کریمی، ب (1391)، تاثیر معماری قدیم بوشهر بر فرهنگ و معماری کشورهای حاشیه خلیج فارس (مطالعه موردی محله البستکیه شهر دبی)، هویت شهر، 11، صص 85–96.
نیکقدم، ن (1395)، تاثیر باد و آفتاب در تعدیل شرایط گرمایی خانه های یوشهر نمونه موردی: خانه گلشن، نشریه علمی - پژوهشی انجمن علمی معماری و شهرسازی ایران، 12، صص 29–46.
هدایت، ا و طبائیان، م (1391)، بررسی عناصر شکل دهنده و دلایل وجودی ان ها در خانه های سنتی تاریخی بوشهر، نشریه شهر و معماری بومی، 3، صص 35–54.  
Al-Hinai, H; Batty, W. J & Probert, S. D (1993), Vernacular architecture of Oman: Features that enhance thermal comfort achieved within buildings, Applied Energy, 44(3), pp.233–258. http://doi.org/10.1016/0306-2619(93)90019-L.
Borong, L; Gang, T; Peng, W; Ling, S; Yingxin, Z & Guangkui, Z (2004), Study on the thermal performance of the Chinese traditional vernacular dwellings in Summer, Energy and Buildings, 36(1), pp.73–79. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7788(03)00090-2.
Bravo, G & González, E (2013), Thermal comfort in naturally ventilated spaces and under indirect evaporative passive cooling conditions in hot–humid climate, Energy and Buildings, 63, pp.79–86. http://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.enbuild .2013 .03.007.
Cândido, C; de Dear, R. J; Lamberts, R & Bittencourt, L (2010), Air movement acceptability limits and thermal comfort in Brazil’s hot humid climate zone, Building and Environment, 45(1), pp.222–229. http://doi.org/10. 1016/j.buildenv. 2009.06.005.
Cheng, V; Ng, E & Givoni, B (2005), Effect of envelope colour and thermal mass on indoor temperatures in hot humid climate, Solar Energy, 78(4), pp.528–534. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2004.05.005.
Dili, A. S; Naseer, M. A & Varghese, T. Z (2010), Thermal comfort study of Kerala traditional residential buildings based on questionnaire survey among occupants of traditional and modern buildings, Energy and Buildings, 42(11), pp. 2139–2150. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2010.07.004.
Foruzanmehr, A (2012), Summer-time thermal comfort in vernacular earth dwellings in Yazd, Iran, International Journal of Sustainable Design, 2(1), p.46. http://doi.org/10.1504/IJSDES.2012.051479.
Gustavsson, L; Joelsson, A & Sathre, R (2010), Life cycle primary energy use and carbon emission of an eight-storey wood-framed apartment building. Energy and Buildings, 42(2), pp.230–242. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2009.08.018.
Gustavsson, L & Sathre, R (2006), Variability in energy and carbon dioxide balances of wood and concrete building materials, Building and Environment, 41(7), pp.940–951. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.04.008.
Labaki, L. C & Kowaltowski, D. C. C. K (1998), Bioclimatic and vernacular design in urban settlements of Brazil. Building and Environment, 33(1), pp.63–77. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0360-1323(97)00024-3.
Nematchoua, M. K, Tchinda, R & Orosa, J. a (2014), Thermal comfort and energy consumption in modern versus traditional buildings in Cameroon: A questionnaire-based statistical study, Applied Energy, 114, pp.687–699. http://doi.org/10 .1016/j.apenergy.2013.10.036.
Peng, C (2010), Survey of thermal comfort in residential buildings under natural conditions in hot humid and cold wet seasons in Nanjing, Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China, 4(4), pp. 503–511. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-010-0095-1.
Ramli, N. H (2012), Re-adaptation of Malay House Thermal Comfort Design Elements into Modern Building Elements – Case Study of Selangor Traditional Malay House & Low Energy Building in Malaysia. Iranica Journal of Energy & Environment, 3, pp.19–23. http://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.ijee.2012.03.05.04.
Rupp, R. F & Ghisi, E (2014), What is the most adequate method to assess thermal comfort in hybrid commercial buildings located in hot-humid summer climate? Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 29, pp.449–462. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.08.102.
Ryu, Y; Kim, S & Lee, D (2009), The influence of wind flows on thermal comfort in the Daechung of a traditional Korean house. Building and Environment, 44(1), pp.18–26. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2008.01.007.
Saadatian, O; Haw, L. C; Sopian, K & Sulaiman, M. Y (2012), Review of windcatcher technologies, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(3), pp.1477–1495. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.11.037.
Sarkar,  A (2013), Study of climate responsive passive design features in traditional hill architecture of Khyah village in Hamirpur, Himachal Pradesh, India for indoor thermal comfort, Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India): Series A, 94(1), pp.59–72. http://doi.org/10.1007/s40030-013-0033-z.
Singh, M. K; Mahapatra, S & Atreya, S. K (2009), Bioclimatism and vernacular architecture of north-east India, Building and Environment, 44(5), pp.878–888. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2008.06.008.
Singh, M. K; Mahapatra, S & Atreya, S. K (2010), Thermal performance study and evaluation of comfort temperatures in vernacular buildings of North-East India, Building and Environment, 45(2), pp. 320–329. http://doi.org/10.1016/j .buildenv.2009.06.009
Takapoomanesh, S (n.d.), Understanding patterns of sustainable architecture in residential buildings of the historic fabric of Bushehr, Architecture and Building, ????????????, pp.130–135.
Toe, D. H. C & Kubota, T (2015), Comparative assessment of vernacular passive cooling techniques for improving indoor thermal comfort of modern terraced houses in hot–humid climate of Malaysia, Solar Energy, 114, pp.229–258, http://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2015.01.035.
Tzikopoulos, A. F; Karatza, M. C & Paravantis, J. A (2005), Modeling energy efficiency of bioclimatic buildings, Energy and Buildings, 37(5), pp.529–544. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2004.09.002.
Wang, L. J; Liu, J. P; Liu, Y. F; Wang, Y. Y & Chen, J (2011), Study on thermal environment of traditional architecture in tropic climate. Advanced Materials Research, 243-249, pp.6857–6861. http://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific .net/ AMR.243-249.6857.
Zain, Z. M; Taib, M. N & Baki, S. M. S (2007), Hot and humid climate: prospect for thermal comfort in residential building. Desalination, 209(1-3), pp.261–268. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2007.04.036.
Zhang, Y; Wang, J; Chen, H; Zhang, J & Meng, Q (2010), Thermal comfort in naturally ventilated buildings in hot-humid area of China. Building and Environment, 45(11), pp.2562–2570. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2010.05.024.