The Obstacles against the Success of Suggested Functions in Urban Development Projects in Iran

Document Type : Research Paper



Land use planning in Iran has been based on traditional detailed, comprehensive plans over the last half a century. A variety of studies and evaluations on these plans have indicated a general failure and called for reforms in terms of their content and methods. Present paper aims to find and investigate the causes of the failure to implement proposed urban land use plans with the hope that the results may be usefully direct relevant reforms.
The causes of the failure have indicated in previous studies but these are closely dependent on the professional experience of the researchers and none of them were methodologically systematic. Thus, this gap is addressed in the present paper. Unlike the previous body of research, the quantitative methodology adopted here is known as ‘grounded theory’. Required data was derived from depth interviews. Snowball sampling was employed, including 14 highly informed members from among city officials, planning counselors, professors.
Thus taking the problem as a phenomenon and using grounded theory can be useful in exploration of different causes and conditions. Grounded theory emphasizes direct engagement with real life situations in order to discover what is really going on and believes in the complexity of phenomena and human activities and those humans adopt activism in face of challenges. This theory is sensitive to dynamic, unfolding nature of events and seeks to know the corresponding relations between conditions (structure), action (process) and consequences. For this dilemma as a complex, multidimensional phenomenon, employing grounded theory is more rewarding than other research methods. According to this theory, the main causes of failures in land use plans are recognized along with their relative importance.
Results revealed that some 11 different factors have been related to fail attempts directly, conveniently called causal conditions. The most important were the lack of realism and logical thinking in making plans and proposals (26.56%), unsystematic erroneous decisions and actions (14.06%), negative financial balances in municipalities and illegal profits earned from side stepping the proposed plans (14.06). Any reform in status quo must take into account these obstacles.
In order to clarify these themes divided into two parts. The first contains the problems related to urban plans procedure and content and the second related to problems of urbanization system and structure in Iran. The results indicate that totally 192 codes generate from interviews. Of this number, 69 codes (35.93%) related to plans and 123 codes (64.06%) related to system. Then, reformation and making changes in method and content of planning only couldn’t be enough.
In addition to above conditions, contextual conditions and sustain conditions are also revealed to be effective in this issue. Contextual conditions include major factors that lie outside the reach of urban administrative system. Therefore, urban administrative system may adopt two strategies: repair strategy or conformity strategy. The factors that help the existing situation remain unchanged are called sustain conditions and must be addressed seriously, otherwise, the present problems may continue and make us cope with consequences of inaction.


فهرست منابع

استراوس، انسلم و کربین، کربین (1392)، مبانی پژوهش کیفی (فنون و مراحل تولید نظریه زمینه­ای)، ترجمه: ابراهیم افشار، نشر نی، تهران.
بریاسولیس، هلن (1388)، الگوهای تحلیلی تغییر کاربری زمین، آذرخش، تهران. 
حسین زاده دلیر، کریم و ملکی، سعید(1386)، بررسی تغییرات کاربری اراضی شهری در طرح جامع و تفصیلی شهر ایلام، مجله جغرافیا و توسعه ناحیه ای، 4(8)، صص93-65.
رهنما، محمدرحیم (1387)، پژوهشی پیرامون طرحهای تفصیلی شهری، جهاد دانشگاهی مشهد، مشهد.
زنگی آبادی، علی؛ عبداللهی، مهدی؛ سالک،رقیه و قاسم زاده، بهنام (1393)، ارزیابی عوامل اثر گذار بر عدم تحقق پذیری طرح های جامع شهری در ایران و چالش های آن، پژوهش و برنامه ریزی شهری، 18، صص 58-41.
زیستا، مهندسین مشاور (1372)، ارزیابی طرح­های جامع شهری در ایران، سازمان برنامه و بودجه، تهران.
سجادی، ژیلا(1393)، ارزیابی میزان تحقق کاربری زمین در طرح های توسعه شهری با تأکید بر کاربری فضای سبز، پژوهش های منظر شهری، 1، صص 56-45.
سعید نیا، احمد (1383)، کتاب سبز(راهنمای شهرداری ها)جلد پنجم، انتشارات سازمان شهرداری ها و دهیاری های کشور، تهران.
سیلور، کریستینا (1393)، راهنمای گام به گام استفاده از نرم افزار MAXqda2 در تحقیق کیفی، ترجمه: ا، رمضانی، جامعه شناسان، تهران.
ضرابی، اصغر(1391)، تحلیل کاربری اراضی شهر جدید بینالود، مجله علمی تخصصی برنامه ریزی فضایی، 2(1)، صص 49-66 .
عزیزی، محمدمهدی (1392)، تحلیلی بر رابطه سرانه کاربری های زمین و اندازه شهر در طرح های جامع ایران، هنرهای زیبا-معماری و شهرسازی، 18(4)، صص 25-36.
عزیزی، محمدمهدی و آراسته، مجتبی (1390)، ارزیابی تحقق­پذیری پیش­بینی های کاربری اراضی و پیشنهادهای جهات توسعه در طرح جامع شهر لار، مطالعات و پژوهش های شهری و منطقه ای، 3(11)، صص 1-22.
محمدپور، احمد (1392)، روش تحقیق کیفی ضد روش1، جامعه شناسان، تهران.
مشهودی، سهراب(1386)، مبانی طرحهای سیال شهری، شرکت پردازش و برنامه ریزی شهری، تهران.
مهدی زاده، جواد (1386)، برنامه ریزی راهبردی توسعه شهری، شرکت طرح و نشر پیام سیما، تهران.
مهندسین مشاور شارمند(1379)، شیوه های تحقق طرح های توسعه شهری، جلد دوم : تدوین شیوه های مناسب تهیه طرح های شهری در ایران، انتشارات سازمان شهرداری های کشور، تهران.
نوریان، فرشاد و شریف، محمد (1375)، نگرشی بر روند تهیه طرح تفصیلی در شهرسازی، شرکت پردازش و برنامه ریزی شهری، تهران.
هیلیر، جین (1388)، سایه های قدرت-حکایت دور اندیشی در برنامه ریزی کاربری زمین، ترجمه:ک. پولادی، مهندسان مشاور ایران، تهران.
Albrechts, Louis (2006), Bridge the gap: from spatial planning to strategic projects, European planning studies, 14(10), pp.1487-1500.
Chapin, Stewart & Kaiser, Edward (1995), Urban land use planning, Champaign, Illinois, University of Illion press.
Charmaz, Kathy (2006), Grounded grounding theory: a practical guide through qualitative analysis, sage publications Ltd, London.
Cruz, Rizalino B (1993), Developing a land use information system for local government: The case study of Nega city,Phillipines, International Institute for geo-information science and Earth Observation, Netherlands.
Evans, Alan W (2004), Economics and land use planning, Blackwell, Oxford.
Gall, Meredith; Gall, Joyce & Borg, Walter R (2006), Educational Research: an introduction (Eight ed.), Allyn& Bacon, Boston.
Glaser, Barney & Strauss, Anselm (1967), discovery of grounded theory, Aldine Publishing company, Chicago.
Graaf, Robin & Dewulf, Geert (2010), Applying the lessons of strategic urban planning learned in the developing world to Netherland: A case study of three industrial area development projects, Habitat international, 34, pp.471-477.
Khalifa, Marwa A (2012), A critical review on current practices of the monitoring and evaluation in the preparation of strategic urban plans whitin the Egyption context, Habitat international, 36, pp.57-67.
Kim, Jea Hong (2011), Linking land use planning and regulation to economic development: A literature review, Journal of planning Literature, 26 (1), pp.35-47.
Kivell, Philip (1993), Land and the city: Patterns and Processes of urban change, Routledge, London.
Morse, Janice. M (2001), Situating grounded theory. In R. Schreiber, & P. Noerager Stern, Using grounded theory in nursing, Springer, New York.
Patton, Michael Quin (2002), Qualitative research and evaluation methods (Third edition ed.), Sage publications Ltd, London.
Qian, zhu (2013), Master plan,plan adjustment and urban development reality under china s market transition: A case study of Nanjing, Cities, ????????, pp.77-88.
Qian, zhu (2010), Without zoning: urban development and land use controls in Houston, Cities, 27, pp.31-41.
Teddlie, Charles & Tashakkori, Abbas (2009), Foundation of Mixed Methods Research: Integrating Qualitative and Qualitative Approach in the Social and Behavioral Science, Thousand Oaks, London.
Todes, Alison (2011), Urban growth and strategic urban planning in Johannesburg, south Africa, Cities, 29, pp.158-165.
Wu, Fulong (2007), Re-orientation of city plan: strategic planning and design competition in china, Geoforum, 38, pp.379-392.
Zhang, Xiaoling; Wu, Yuzhe & Shen, Liyin (2011), An evaluation for sustainability of urban land use: A study of capital cities and municipality in china, Habitat international, 35, pp.141-149.