Comparative Evaluation of the Environmental Quality of Residential Place with an Emphasis on Citizens' Image* (Case Study: Qazvin City)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor of Urban Planning, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran

2 M.A. Graduated of Urban and Regional Planning, Department of Urbanism and Architecture, Imam Khomeini International University, Iran.


  When the human habitat can provide more utility to a man who meets his expectations. The expectations are defined in all aspects of environmental, social, physical, economic situation and so on in residential places. If any of these desirable qualities are lacking in a person's life, will affect both the perception and feeling of space and the level of satisfaction from quality of residential place. On the other hand nowadays more than half of the world's populations live in urban areas. So the phenomenon of urbanization has become inevitable today. Therefore, we should always pay attention that civil society encompasses a wide range of the cultural – social and occupational groups. Each of these groups according to the type of insight and norms has different criteria for choosing a place to live and work. Therefore they have also different criteria about satisfaction of the city environmental quality. However in developing societies, attention to the demands of all the people is very difficult and Complex, so often is reliance only Specialist understanding of the qualities of the environment. But in this research we emphasize on the mental image of citizen about urban environmental quality. So, this research, in order to improve environmental quality in urban residential places, trying to answer this question that what a priority criteria and indicators of environmental quality are in the urban residential place in mental image of citizens. To achieve this, first of all, we express the concept of urban environmental quality and its component, then we develop the theoretical model for evaluating the level of residents' satisfactory. The model is divided into five levels; each level evaluates benchmark of one component such as Environmental, Socio – cultural, Economic, Physical and management criteria involve in the quality of the environment. In this regard, a questionnaire was designed according to the range of five-point Likert scale (1 < X < 5) to assess the quality of the urban environment. 378 Questionnaire based on the formula of Cochran is distributed between Citizens residing in Qazvin residential place, And we were using analytical – descriptive method and Spss software in data analysis and one-way ANOVA and Duncan grouping test to evaluate and rank components of environmental quality in the urban residential place. To determine the validity of the research instrument of the questionnaire we referred to professors and experts, all of them were positive with all comments and the reliability of the questionnaire was assessed by Cronbach's alpha test, the value of this coefficient is 0.927 that shows the high reliability. Questionnaires measures the level of environmental quality in two general of quality living environment and quality of residential environment quality in Three regions of Qazvin. In general summary and conclusion, the results of Comparative evaluation between three regions of Qazvin indicate that, the citizens of the second region in the neighborhood of the city of Qazvin in comparison with other areas of the city are more satisfied with the quality of any components of residential place and the formation of the social fabric has great impact in this results.


امین صالحی، فرزین(1387)، ارتقای کیفیت محیط سکونت در مجتمع‌های بلندمرتبه و ارائه راه‌کارهای مناسب، پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد شهرسازی دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران.
بهرامی‌نژاد، دهقان(1382)، شناخت و ارزیابی کیفیت محیط شهری در بافت میانی شهرها، پایان نامه دوره کارشناسی ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز.
براند فری، هیلدر (1383)، طراحی شهری به سوی یک شکل پایدارتر شهر، ترجمه حسین بحرینی، انتشارات شرکت پردازش و برنامه ریزی شهری، تهران.
خادم الحسینی، احمد و حسین منصوریان و محمد حسین ستاری (1389)، سنجش کیفیت ذهنی زندگی در نواحی شهری، فصل‌نامه جغرافیا و مطالعات محیطی، سال اول ، شماره 3، صص45-60.
رفیعیان مجتبی و جمشید مولوی (1391)، رویکردها و روش‌های سنجش کیفیت محیط مسکونی شهر، انتشارات آذرخش، چاپ اول، تهران.
سرمد، زهره و عباس حجازی (1381)، روش‌ تحقیق در علوم رفتاری، چاپ ششم، انتشارات آگاه، تهران.
عمید، حسن (1363)، فرهنگ فارسی عمید، تهران، موسسه انتشارات امیر کبیر، تهران.
علی محمدی، شکیبا و علیرضا پوررستم (1390)، کاربرد spss در برنامه ریزی شهری، بیست و چهارمین دوره آموزشی و کارگاه تخصصی جامعه مهندسان شهرساز، تهران.
گلکار، کوروش (1380)، مولفه‌های سازنده کیفیت محیط شهری، نشریه صفه، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، شماره 32، صص38-68. گی‌فورد، رابرت (1378)، روان‌شناسی محیط‌های مسکونی، ترجمه وحید قبادیان، فصلنامه معماری و فرهنگ، شماره30 دوم و سوم، پائیز و زمستان، صص71-92.
مدنی پور، علی (1379)، طراحی فضای شهری، نگرشی به فرآیندی اجتماعی و مکانی، ترجمه فرهاد مرتضایی، شرکت پردازش و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، تهران.
مهندسین مشاور شهر و برنامه (1389)، طرح جامع و تفصیلی شهر قزوین، خلاصه گزارش‌های مطالعات.
مرتضوی، شهناز (1380)، روان‌شناسی محیط و کاربرد آن، انتشارات دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران.
مطلبی، قاسم (1380)، روان‌شناسی محیط، دانشی نو در خدمت معماری و طراحی شهری، نشریه هنرهای زیبا، شماره 10، زمستان، صص52-67
نقی‌زاده، محمد (1386)، ادراک زیبایی و هویت شهر در پرتو تفکر اسلامی، معاونت شهرسازی شهرداری اصفهان، اصفهان.
Carmona, M. (2006), Public Places and Urban Spaces, Architectural Press is an imprint of Elsevier, London.
kretzmann, John & mcknight, John(2006), Building communities from the inside out: a path toeard finding and mobilizing a community'sassets, institute for policy research, distributed exclusively by ACTA publications,Chicago.
Oxford Advanced Learners, (1989), Dictionary of Current English, published by the Oxford University Press, London.
RIVM (2002), the morbidity af asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the nether elands, workshop livability, P 13, rapport.
Porteous, J. Douglas., (1971), Design with People-the Quality of the Urban Environment, Environmental and Behavior, Published in Environment and behavior: eb; an interdisciplinary journal No 3, 155–178.
Van Kamp, Irene and et al (2003), urban environmental quality and human well-being toward a conceptual framework and demarcation of concepts: a literature study, published by Landscape and Urban Planning, journal, 65, pp. 5-18.
Van poll, R (1997), the perceived quality of the urban residential environment: A multi attribute evaluation, PhD-Thesis, Center for energy and environmental studies (IVEM), University of Groningen (RuG), The Netherland.
Marans, Robert W.(2003), Understanding environmental quality through quality of life, the 2001 DAS and objective indicators, Paper submitted for a special issue of the Journal of Landscape and Urban Planningto be published in 2003.