A geo-referenciel analysis on urban governance policies in Tehran metropolis (The years 1993-2007) Toward urban integration or spatial segregation?



Establishing equilibrium in various regions of a town is normally considered to be the main aims of all municipalities and the urban governance policies of the related organizations. But in spite of the elementary goals of urban renewal policies, some of the urban renovation projects lead to inverse consequences like urban gentrification or spatial segregation in urban areas. For analyzing such impacts, it is necessary to consider the other aspects of urban interventions which are realized by urban governance actors. But there is not effective and analytical researches about this problematic in the case of Tehran metropolis. As a major aims of this article we would like to discus on the forgotten aspects of urban renewal action which Tehran municipality has done in Tehran during two precedent decades (since 1992). Right from the early development and renewal -during Naseroldin and Reza Shah reigns-, various regions of Tehran enjoyed some socio-economical privileged according to their good natural geological climate. The trend of the gap between the urban regions in the years sixties Before Islamic Revolution via Tehran first Comprehensive Plan was even accelerated and formed two obvious socio-spatial poles i.e. rich in the north and poor in the south and that was a potential motivation for social demonstrations against the political system of the country at the beginning of the Islamic Revolution. One of the main goals of revolution was the establishing equilibrium to Tehran urban regions. But due to the start of the imposed war (Iraq-Iran) that objective was omitted from the priorities. When the war ended, Tehran metropolis with two distinct and antagonist urban poles - rich in the north and poor in the south- needed serious urban renewal. So urban renewal of Tehran was the symbol of main goals of urban development in early years of ninety decade which was commenced by appointment of Gh-H. Karbaschi as Tehran mayor. Tehran municipality followed up some policies by controversy actions in order to achieve financial independency in municipality system. The innovate action of Tehran municipality was derogation of urbanism codes and rules by permitting to high density construction. The Municipality has done this action (so called “Tarakom-Foroushi / Density Sale”) by getting money from high density building constructor in the cadre of Construction Permit. The effects of the massive urban renovation activities in Tehran as a whole in post ninety decades were rarely evaluated by any quantitative indicators. So there are always inquiries about the outcome effects of such actions leading to some urban integration or intensifying the socio-spatial segregation in the north and the south of Tehran? This article analyses and evaluates such effects of a 15-year-period urban renovation in three urban governance periods i.e. “Karbaschi”, “First City Council” and “Second City Council” periods by some quantities indices that show approximately the level of investment and the price variation in houses and lands. This studies arises questions like whether in those periods we really achieved something toward urban renewal or just intensified the soci-spatial segregation? However the outlook of Tehran metropolis has been transformed but our geo-referential analyses and evaluation of the urban governance policies of those periods show spatial segregation and some traces of social polarization in the North and the South of Tehran metropolis.