مشارکت‌پذیری یا مشارکت‌گریزی مردم و برنامه‌ریزان؟ پژوهشی کیفی در محیط برنامه‌ریزی شهری ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران

2 استاد گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران

4 استاد گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر، تهران، ایران

5 استاد گروه حوادث و بلایا، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مشارکت، مفهومی محلی، متنوع، پیچیده و پویا است. از این‌رو نظریه‌ها و دیدگاه‌های موجود در زمینه مشارکت در برنامه‌ریزی شهری که اغلب در ساختار کشورهای غربی ارائه شده‌اند، در سایر کشورها اثربخشی لازم را ندارند. این در حالی است که تأکید اغلب پژوهش‌های انجام‌ شده در این حوزه در محیط برنامه‌ریزی شهری کشور، بر سنجش نظریه‌های موجود معطوف و هدف آن‌ها تعیین سهم متغیرهای شناسایی شده از مشارکت و ارزیابی فرایند‌های مشارکتی بوده‌است. اما با توجه به ماهیت ذهنی و تعاملی این پدیده، ادراک آن توسط کنشگران مختلف می‌تواند با دیدگاه‌های نظریِ جهانی، متفاوت باشد. بنابراین محدود­کردن آن در ساختار نظریه‌های موجود، تأمل‌برانگیز است. هدف این پژوهش، شناخت ادراک مردم و برنامه‌ریزان از فرایند مشارکت در محیط برنامه‌ریزی شهری است. چراکه تحقق مشارکت تنها مستلزم به‌کارگیری فرایند و شیوه‌های مناسب مشارکتی نیست، بلکه نیازمند شرایطی است که صرفاً عینی و متأثر از ساختارهای رسمی محیط برنامه‌ریزی نیستند و لازمه کشف آن‌ها، درک تجربه و معنای تجربه کنشگران از فرایند مشارکت است. این پژوهش در دسته پارادایم تفسیرگرایی قرار می‌گیرد. در این پژوهش از تحلیل محتوای کیفیِ استقراییِ آشکار به منظور تفسیر داده‌ها استفاده شده‌است. یافته‌ها بیانگر آن است که مهم‌ترین مفهوم در حوزه ادراک برنامه‌ریزان و مردم از مشارکت در محیط برنامه‌ریزی شهری، مشارکت‌گریزی مردم و برنامه‌ریزان است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Accepting or Refusing to Participate? A qualitative research in urban planning environment of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Marjan Sharafi 1
  • Mostafa behzadfar 2
  • Seyed Abdolhadi Daneshpour 3
  • Naser Barakpour 4
  • Hamidreza Khankeh 5
1 Ph. D. in Urban Planning, School of Architecture and Urban Studies, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, School of Architecture and Urban Studies, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Professor, School of Architecture and Urban Studies, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran, Iran
4 Professor, Department of Urban Planning and Design, School of Architecture and Urban Studies University of Art, Tehran, Iran
5 Professor, Department of Health in Disasters & Emergencies, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences (USWR), Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Public Participation is a local, diverse, complicated and dynamic concept. So, the existing theories in the field of public participation in urban planning which has been developed in the global North countries are not in the line with the characteristics of the planning environments of developing countries, moreover they have not enough efficiency in these countries. Whereas, in theory, most of the research noticing to public participation in the urban planning environment in Iran have adopted the positivist approach to evaluate the existing theories and have aimed to determine the Importance of known variables and their impact on public participation. In the other part of these researches have been tried to evaluate the consequences of participatory processes. These researches attempt to deal with this complicated and abstract phenomenon through shrinking it to numbers and figures within the framework of existing theories, without considering the characteristics of planning environment. Accordingly, there is a contradiction in understanding that is riddled with misunderstandings and ambiguity about the concept of participation and its effectiveness in the urban planning environment in Iran. From an empirical point of view, due to the essence of this concept and the variety of its understanding and practice in different structures, the contemporary experiments that are based on the theories, models and experiences of other countries, over-reliance on the techniques of participation and merely emphasized on the objective conditions of the formal structure of the planning environment, not only have not decreased the gap between theory and practice, but also have resulted in practice in trapping participation into a vicious and faulty cycle. Therefor this research tries to recognize the informal structures of urban planning environment which affect public participation, through discovering the experience of people and planners in public participation and the meaning of it in the urban planning environment of Iran. This research can be categorized within the interpretive paradigms. Epistemologically, it emphasizes on the interaction between the researcher and the participants and the closest possible objective distance. This research uses ‘manifest inductive qualitative content’ analysis methodology. Data gathering has been done using in-depth unstructured interviews. Choosing participants (interviewees) has been targeted towards developing the concepts and continued until theoretical saturation. 22 individual in-depth interviews and 2 group interviews have been conducted with planners and people who had experience in participation. Being aware of the interactive characteristic of the concept of participation, some field surveys have been conducted during the procedure of the study in order to develop the concepts further. The findings of the study demonstrate that the most important concept in the understanding and practicing of participation for the people and the planners, simultaneously, is “refusal from participation”, which is a different concept than the concept of refusal argued in former theories in the field of social sciences. Finally, by achieving an in-depth understanding of the components of the participatory planning environment, this research, that has considered the current conditions of the planning environment of the country, underscores the areas requiring intervention to fill the gap between theory and practice in participation.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Public Participation
  • the experience of participation
  • planners’ refusal to participation
  • people’s refusal to participation
  • urban planning environment
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